(ii) Comment on the figures in the statement prepared in (a)(i) above. (4 marks)
(ii) The statement of product profitability shows that CTC is forecast to achieve a profit of $2·185 million in 2008 giving a
profit:sales ratio of 11·9%. However, the forecast profit in 2009 is only $22,000 which would give a profit:sales ratio
of just 0·19%! Total sales volume in 2008 is 390,000 units which represent 97·5% utilisation of total annual capacity.
In stark contrast, the total sales volume in 2009 is forecast to be 240,000 units which represents 60% utilisation of
total annual capacity and shows the expected rapid decline in sales volumes of Bruno and Kong products. The rapid
decline in the sales of these two products is only offset to a relatively small extent by increased sales volume from the
Leo product. It is vital that a new product or products with healthy contribution to sales ratios are introduced.
Management should also undertake cost/benefit analyses in order to assess the potential of extending the life of Bruno
and Kong products.
(c) Discuss the reasons why the net present value investment appraisal method is preferred to other investment
appraisal methods such as payback, return on capital employed and internal rate of return. (9 marks)
(c) There are many reasons that could be discussed in support of the view that net present value (NPV) is superior to other
investment appraisal methods.
NPV considers cash flows
This is the reason why NPV is preferred to return on capital employed (ROCE), since ROCE compares average annual
accounting profit with initial or average capital invested. Financial management always prefers cash flows to accounting profit,
since profit is seen as being open to manipulation. Furthermore, only cash flows are capable of adding to the wealth of
shareholders in the form. of increased dividends. Both internal rate of return (IRR) and Payback also consider cash flows.
NPV considers the whole of an investment project
In this respect NPV is superior to Payback, which measures the time it takes for an investment project to repay the initial
capital invested. Payback therefore considers cash flows within the payback period and ignores cash flows outside of the
payback period. If Payback is used as an investment appraisal method, projects yielding high returns outside of the payback
period will be wrongly rejected. In practice, however, it is unlikely that Payback will be used alone as an investment appraisal
NPV considers the time value of money
NPV and IRR are both discounted cash flow (DCF) models which consider the time value of money, whereas ROCE and
Payback do not. Although Discounted Payback can be used to appraise investment projects, this method still suffers from the
criticism that it ignores cash flows outside of the payback period. Considering the time value of money is essential, since
otherwise cash flows occurring at different times cannot be distinguished from each other in terms of value from the
perspective of the present time.
NPV is an absolute measure of return
NPV is seen as being superior to investment appraisal methods that offer a relative measure of return, such as IRR and ROCE,
and which therefore fail to reflect the amount of the initial investment or the absolute increase in corporate value. Defenders
of IRR and ROCE respond that these methods offer a measure of return that is understandable by managers and which can
be intuitively compared with economic variables such as interest rates and inflation rates.
NPV links directly to the objective of maximising shareholders’ wealth
The NPV of an investment project represents the change in total market value that will occur if the investment project is
accepted. The increase in wealth of each shareholder can therefore be measured by the increase in the value of their
shareholding as a percentage of the overall issued share capital of the company. Other investment appraisal methods do not
have this direct link with the primary financial management objective of the company.
NPV always offers the correct investment advice
With respect to mutually exclusive projects, NPV always indicates which project should be selected in order to achieve the
maximum increase on corporate value. This is not true of IRR, which offers incorrect advice at discount rates which are less
than the internal rate of return of the incremental cash flows. This problem can be overcome by using the incremental yield
NPV can accommodate changes in the discount rate
While NPV can easily accommodate changes in the discount rate, IRR simply ignores them, since the calculated internal rate
of return is independent of the cost of capital in all time periods.
NPV has a sensible re-investment assumption
NPV assumes that intermediate cash flows are re-invested at the company’s cost of capital, which is a reasonable assumption
as the company’s cost of capital represents the average opportunity cost of the company’s providers of finance, i.e. it
represents a rate of return which exists in the real world. By contrast, IRR assumes that intermediate cash flows are reinvested
at the internal rate of return, which is not an investment rate available in practice,
NPV can accommodate non-conventional cash flows
Non-conventional cash flows exist when negative cash flows arise during the life of the project. For each change in sign there
is potentially one additional internal rate of return. With non-conventional cash flows, therefore, IRR can suffer from the
technical problem of giving multiple internal rates of return.
3 The directors of The Healthy Eating Group (HEG), a successful restaurant chain, which commenced trading in 1998,
have decided to enter the sandwich market in Homeland, its country of operation. It has set up a separate operation
under the name of Healthy Sandwiches Co (HSC). A management team for HSC has been recruited via a recruitment
consultancy which specialises in food sector appointments. Homeland has very high unemployment and the vast
majority of its workforce has no experience in a food manufacturing environment. HSC will commence trading on
1 January 2008.
The following information is available:
(1) HSC has agreed to make and supply sandwiches to agreed recipes for the Superior Food Group (SFG) which
owns a chain of supermarkets in all towns and cities within Homeland. SFG insists that it selects the suppliers
of the ingredients that are used in making the sandwiches it sells and therefore HSC would be unable to reduce
the costs of the ingredients used in the sandwiches. HSC will be the sole supplier for SFG.
(2) The number of sandwiches sold per year in Homeland is 625 million. SFG has a market share of 4%.
(3) The average selling price of all sandwiches sold by SFG is $2·40. SFG wishes to make a mark-up of 331/3% on
all sandwiches sold. 90% of all sandwiches sold by SFG are sold before 2 pm each day. The majority of the
remaining 10% are sold after 8 pm. It is the intention that all sandwiches are sold on the day that they are
delivered into SFG’s supermarkets.
(4) The finance director of HSC has estimated that the average cost of ingredients per sandwich is $0·70. All
sandwiches are made by hand.
(5) Packaging and labelling costs amount to $0·15 per sandwich.
(6) Fixed overheads have been estimated to amount to $5,401,000 per annum. Note that fixed overheads include
all wages and salaries costs as all employees are subject to fixed term employment contracts.
(7) Distribution costs are expected to amount to 8% of HSC’s revenue.
(8) The finance director of HSC has stated that he believes the target sales margin of 32% can be achieved, although
he is concerned about the effect that an increase in the cost of all ingredients would have on the forecast profits
(assuming that all other revenue/cost data remains unchanged).
(9) The existing management information system of HEG was purchased at the time that HEG commenced trading.
The directors are now considering investing in an enterprise resource planning system (ERPS).
(a) Using only the above information, show how the finance director of HSC reached his conclusion regarding
the expected sales margin and also state whether he was correct to be concerned about an increase in the
price of ingredients. (5 marks)
Additionally the directors wish to know how the provision for deferred taxation would be calculated in the following
situations under IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’:
(i) On 1 November 2003, the company had granted ten million share options worth $40 million subject to a two
year vesting period. Local tax law allows a tax deduction at the exercise date of the intrinsic value of the options.
The intrinsic value of the ten million share options at 31 October 2004 was $16 million and at 31 October 2005
was $46 million. The increase in the share price in the year to 31 October 2005 could not be foreseen at
31 October 2004. The options were exercised at 31 October 2005. The directors are unsure how to account
for deferred taxation on this transaction for the years ended 31 October 2004 and 31 October 2005.
(ii) Panel is leasing plant under a finance lease over a five year period. The asset was recorded at the present value
of the minimum lease payments of $12 million at the inception of the lease which was 1 November 2004. The
asset is depreciated on a straight line basis over the five years and has no residual value. The annual lease
payments are $3 million payable in arrears on 31 October and the effective interest rate is 8% per annum. The
directors have not leased an asset under a finance lease before and are unsure as to its treatment for deferred
taxation. The company can claim a tax deduction for the annual rental payment as the finance lease does not
qualify for tax relief.
(iii) A wholly owned overseas subsidiary, Pins, a limited liability company, sold goods costing $7 million to Panel on
1 September 2005, and these goods had not been sold by Panel before the year end. Panel had paid $9 million
for these goods. The directors do not understand how this transaction should be dealt with in the financial
statements of the subsidiary and the group for taxation purposes. Pins pays tax locally at 30%.
(iv) Nails, a limited liability company, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Panel, and is a cash generating unit in its own
right. The value of the property, plant and equipment of Nails at 31 October 2005 was $6 million and purchased
goodwill was $1 million before any impairment loss. The company had no other assets or liabilities. An
impairment loss of $1·8 million had occurred at 31 October 2005. The tax base of the property, plant and
equipment of Nails was $4 million as at 31 October 2005. The directors wish to know how the impairment loss
will affect the deferred tax provision for the year. Impairment losses are not an allowable expense for taxation
Assume a tax rate of 30%.
(b) Discuss, with suitable computations, how the situations (i) to (iv) above will impact on the accounting for
deferred tax under IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’ in the group financial statements of Panel. (16 marks)
(The situations in (i) to (iv) above carry equal marks)
(b) (i) The tax deduction is based on the option’s intrinsic value which is the difference between the market price and exercise
price of the share option. It is likely that a deferred tax asset will arise which represents the difference between the tax
base of the employee’s service received to date and the carrying amount which will effectively normally be zero.
The recognition of the deferred tax asset should be dealt with on the following basis:
(a) if the estimated or actual tax deduction is less than or equal to the cumulative recognised expense then the
associated tax benefits are recognised in the income statement
(b) if the estimated or actual tax deduction exceeds the cumulative recognised compensation expense then the excess
tax benefits are recognised directly in a separate component of equity.
As regards the tax effects of the share options, in the year to 31 October 2004, the tax effect of the remuneration expensewill be in excess of the tax benefit.
The company will have to estimate the amount of the tax benefit as it is based on the share price at 31 October 2005.
The information available at 31 October 2004 indicates a tax benefit based on an intrinsic value of $16 million.
As a result, the tax benefit of $2·4 million will be recognised within the deferred tax provision. At 31 October 2005,
the options have been exercised. Tax receivable will be 30% x $46 million i.e. $13·8 million. The deferred tax asset
of $2·4 million is no longer recognised as the tax benefit has crystallised at the date when the options were exercised.
For a tax benefit to be recognised in the year to 31 October 2004, the provisions of IAS12 should be complied with as
regards the recognition of a deferred tax asset.
(ii) Plant acquired under a finance lease will be recorded as property, plant and equipment and a corresponding liability for
the obligation to pay future rentals. Rents payable are apportioned between the finance charge and a reduction of the
outstanding obligation. A temporary difference will effectively arise between the value of the plant for accounting
purposes and the equivalent of the outstanding obligation as the annual rental payments qualify for tax relief. The tax
base of the asset is the amount deductible for tax in future which is zero. The tax base of the liability is the carrying
amount less any future tax deductible amounts which will give a tax base of zero. Thus the net temporary differencewill be:
(iii) The subsidiary, Pins, has made a profit of $2 million on the transaction with Panel. These goods are held in inventory
at the year end and a consolidation adjustment of an equivalent amount will be made against profit and inventory. Pins
will have provided for the tax on this profit as part of its current tax liability. This tax will need to be eliminated at the
group level and this will be done by recognising a deferred tax asset of $2 million x 30%, i.e. $600,000. Thus any
consolidation adjustments that have the effect of deferring or accelerating tax when viewed from a group perspective will
be accounted for as part of the deferred tax provision. Group profit will be different to the sum of the profits of the
individual group companies. Tax is normally payable on the profits of the individual companies. Thus there is a need
to account for this temporary difference. IAS12 does not specifically address the issue of which tax rate should be used
calculate the deferred tax provision. IAS12 does generally say that regard should be had to the expected recovery or
settlement of the tax. This would be generally consistent with using the rate applicable to the transferee company (Panel)
rather than the transferor (Pins).
(c) mandatory continuing professional development (CPD) requirements. (5 marks)
(c) Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
CPD is defined5 as ‘the continuous maintenance, development and enhancement of the professional and personal knowledge
and skills which members of ACCA require throughout their working lives’.
All professional accountants need to maintain their competence and develop new skills to be effective in their current and
future employment. CPD helps keep accountants in practice employable and maintains their reputation with employers,
clients and the public. It also helps maintain the accounting profession’s reputation for producing and supporting high calibre
individuals. Therefore, CPD is something which professional accountants should take personal responsibility for, and be doing
as part of their everyday work.
Mandatory CPD for active members of IFAC member bodies (such as ACCA) was introduced with effect from 1 January 2005
onwards. ACCA has introduced CPD as a requirement for all active members, subject to the phasing-in dates (and waivers).
Tutorial note: IFAC issued International Education Standard (IES) 7, which requires the introduction of CPD for all active
members of IFAC member bodies.
ACCA practising certificate and insolvency licence holders are still required to participate in technical CPD training. All other
members will also be asked to state on their annual CPD return that they maintain competence in professional ethics.
The scheme is being introduced in phases:
■ phase 1 (2005) – members admitted since 1 January 2001, and all practising certificate and insolvency licence
■ phase 2 (2006) – members admitted between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2000;
■ phase 3 (2007) – all remaining members.
Tutorial note: However, ACCA encouraged all members to adopt the scheme from 1 January 2005.
Affiliates join the CPD scheme on 1 January following their date of admittance to membership.
There are two routes to participation in ACCA’s CPD scheme:
(1) the unit scheme route (40 units approximate to 40 hours required each year); and
(2) the approved CPD employer route (i.e. where employers are recognised as effectively providing ACCA members with
Tutorial note: Alternatively, if an ACCA member is also a member of another IFAC accounting body and that CPD scheme
is compliant with IFAC’s CPD IES 7, they may choose to follow that body’ s route.
(c) Critically discuss the adoption of activity-based management (ABM) in companies such as TOC. (6 marks)
(c) Activity-based management (ABM) is a method of identifying and evaluating activities that a business performs using
activity-based costing to carry out a value chain analysis or a re-engineering initiative to improve strategic and operational
decisions in an organisation. Activity-based costing establishes relationships between overhead costs and activities so that
overhead costs can be more precisely allocated to products, services, or customer segments. Activity-based management
focuses on managing activities to reduce costs and improve customer value.
Kaplan and Cooper (1998) divide ABM into operational ABM and strategic ABM:
Operational ABM is about ‘doing things right’, using ABC information to improve efficiency. Those activities which add value
to the product can be identified and improved. Activities that don’t add value are the ones that need to be reduced to cut costs
without reducing product value.
Strategic ABM is about ‘doing the right things’, using ABC information to decide which products to develop and which
activities to use. This can also be used for customer profitability analysis, identifying which customers are the most profitable
and focusing on them more.
A risk with ABM is that some activities have an implicit value, not necessarily reflected in a financial value added to any
product. For instance a particularly pleasant workplace can help attract and retain the best staff, but may not be identified as
adding value in operational ABM. A customer that represents a loss based on committed activities, but that opens up leads
in a new market, may be identified as a low value customer by a strategic ABM process.
ABM can give middle managers an understanding of costs to other teams to help them make decisions that benefit the whole
organisation, not just their activities’ bottom line.
5 The directors of Quapaw, a limited liability company, are reviewing the company’s draft financial statements for the
year ended 31 December 2004.
The following material matters are under discussion:
(a) During the year the company has begun selling a product with a one-year warranty under which manufacturing
defects are remedied without charge. Some claims have already arisen under the warranty. (2 marks)
Advise the directors on the correct treatment of these matters, stating the relevant accounting standard which
justifies your answer in each case.
NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three matters
(a) The correct treatment is to provide for the best estimate of the costs likely to be incurred under the warranty, as required by
IAS37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets.
(c) Without changing the advice you have given in (b), or varying the terms of Luke’s will, explain how Mabel
could further reduce her eventual inheritance tax liability and quantify the tax saving that could be made.
The increase in the retail prices index from April 1984 to April 1998 is 84%.
You should assume that the rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 will continue to apply for the
(c) Further advice
Mabel should consider delaying one of the gifts until after 1 May 2007 such that it is made more than seven years after the
gift to the discretionary trust. Both PETs would then be covered by the nil rate band resulting in a saving of inheritance tax
of ￡6,720 (from (b)).
Mabel should ensure that she uses her inheritance tax annual exemption of ￡3,000 every year by, say, making gifts of ￡1,500
each year to both Bruce and Padma. The effect of this will be to save inheritance tax of ￡1,200 (￡3,000 x 40%) every year.
(c) Prepare briefing notes, to be used by an audit partner in your firm, assessing the professional, ethical and
other issues to be considered in deciding whether to proceed with the appointment as auditor of Medix Co.
Note: requirement (c) includes 2 professional marks. (12 marks)
(c) Briefing notes
To: Audit partner
From: Audit manager
Subject: Issues to consider regarding appointment as auditor of Medix Co
Medix Co has recently invited our firm to become appointed as auditor. These briefing notes summarise the main issues we
should consider in deciding whether to take the appointment a stage further. My comments are based on a discussion held
with Ricardo Feller, finance director of Medix Co, a discussion with the current audit partner, and information provided in the
Legal actions and investigations
There are several indications that Medix Co has a history of non compliance with law and regulations. The former finance
director is claiming unfair dismissal, and in the past the local authority has successfully taken legal action against the
company and has a current case pending. In addition, there have been two tax investigations in recent years hinting at noncompliance
with relevant tax regulations.
There are two problems for us in taking on a client with a propensity for legal actions and investigations. Firstly, the reputation
of the company must be considered. If we become associated with the company through being appointed as auditor, we could
be ‘tarred with the same brush’ and our own reputation also tarnished.
Secondly, we could become quickly exposed to an advocacy independence threat, which clearly should be avoided. Our
ethical status should not be compromised for the sake of gaining a new audit client. Mick Evans only ‘believes’ that the tax
matter has been resolved by the directors, and we should avoid taking on a new client which is involved in an on-going
The problems noted above are compounded by the bad publicity which the company is currently receiving. The local press
contained a recent article discussing Medix Co’s past and current breach of planning regulations. Given the current level of
public interest in environmental issues, and emphasis on corporate responsibility, it would seem that Medix Co has a poor
public perception, which we would not want to be associated with.
Potential liability to lender
The company is currently negotiating a significant bank loan, and the lender will be using the audited financial statements to
make a decision on whether to advance a loan, and the terms of any finance that might be advanced to Medix Co. This means
that our audit opinion for the forthcoming year end will be scrutinised by the lender, and our firm is exposed to a relatively
high risk of liability to a third party. Given that this will be our first audit, and the limited time we have available (discussed
below) our firm may feel that the risk of this audit engagement is too high. Should the appointment be accepted, disclaimers
should be put in place to ensure that we could not be sued in the event of the bank suffering a financial loss as a result of
their lending decision.
Timeframe. and resources
It is currently the last month of the financial year. If we are appointed as auditor we need to work quickly to develop a thorough
understanding of the business, and to begin to plan the assignment. We need to consider whether our firm has sufficient
resources to put together an audit team so quickly without detracting from other client work currently being conducted.
To make this matter worse, Mick Evans states that Medix Co likes ‘a quick audit’, and we need to consider how to manage
this expectation, as first year audit procedures such as systems documentation, and developing business understanding tend
to take a long time. We must be careful that the client does not pressure us into a ‘quick audit’, which could compromise
Medix Co operates in a reasonably specialist and highly regulated industry, so our firm should take care to ensure we have
expertise in this industry.
Potentially aggressive management style
There are several indicators that the management may take a confrontational approach, such as the unfair dismissal claim
brought against the company by the ex-finance director. In addition, the auditors prior to Mick Evans resigned following a
disagreement with management. This history shows that we may find it difficult to establish a good working relationship with
the management. As the company is owner managed the presence of a dominant managing director exacerbates this problem.
There is incentive for the financial statements to be manipulated in order to secure bank finance. There is considerable risk
of material misstatement which our firm may consider to be unacceptably high.
Internal systems and controls
The current auditors have found systems and controls to be poor, and management has not acted upon recommendations
made by the auditors. Of course this does not mean that we should not take on the assignment – many companies have
weak controls. However, if we did take on the appointment, we would not be able to rely on controls or use a controls based
approach for the audit. We would need to take a substantive approach to the audit. One practical issue here is availability of
staff to conduct the audit testing, as substantive procedures tend to be more time consuming than if we could have taken a
systems based approach.
In all new audit assignments, work must be conducted to verify the opening balances. Given the possible fraud and poor
controls described above, we would need to perform. detailed testing on the opening balances as there is a high risk of fraud
and/or error in previous accounting periods. We may also wish to consider the competence of the previous auditors, who
appeared to disregard potential fraud indicator (two cash books) and had only one audit client.
Mick Evans has made it clear that Medix Co’s management likes to keep a tight control on costs, and it may put pressure on
us to charge a low audit fee. We need to bear in mind the risks associated with this engagement, as discussed above, and
only take on this high risk audit if the audit fee is high enough to compensate.
We should also consider the cash flow problems being experienced by the company. As a business we need to ensure that
we only take on clients with a good credit rating, and it seems that Medix Co, operating with an overdraft, may not be able
to pay our invoices.
Indication of fraud or money laundering
Surely the most serious issue to consider is that Jon Tate, the managing director, has kept two cash books. We need further
detail on this, but it clearly could indicate a fraud being perpetrated at the highest level of management. The fact that he has
maintained two cash books could indicate money laundering activites taking place, especially when considered in the context
of an owner-managed business with overseas operations. If this were the ONLY problem discovered it could be deemed
serious enough to bring to an end our appointment process. It would be reckless for our firm to take on a client where the
managing director is a fraudster.
Further information is needed in many areas before a final decision is made. However, from the information we have gathered
so far, it appears that Medix Co would represent a high risk client, and our firm must therefore be very careful to assess each
problem noted above before deciding whether to proceed with the appointment.
(ii) Assuming the new structure is implemented with effect from 1 August 2006, calculate the level of
management charge that should be made by Bold plc to Linden Limited for the year ended 31 July
2007, so as to minimise the group’s overall corporation tax (CT) liability for that year. (2 marks)
(ii) For the year ended 31 July 2007, there will be two associated companies in the group. Bold plc will count as an
associated company as it is not dormant throughout the period in question. As a result, the corporation tax limits will be
divided by two (i.e. the number of associates) giving an upper limit of ￡750,000 (￡1·5 million/2). As Linden Limited
is anticipated to make profits of ￡1·4 million in the year to 31 July 2007 it will pay corporation tax at the rate of 30%.
Bold plc can earn trading profits up to ￡150,000 (￡300,000/2) and pay tax at the rate of 19%. It will therefore
minimise the group’s corporation tax liability if maximum use is made of this small companies rate band, as it will save
￡16,500 (150,000 x (30% – 19%)) of corporation tax for the year to 31 July 2007. Bold plc should therefore make
a management charge of sufficient size to give it profits for that year equal to ￡150,000.
While the transfer pricing legislation no longer applies to small and medium sized enterprises, Bold plc should
nevertheless ensure that there is evidence to support the actual charge made in terms of the services provided.
(c) (i) Explain the inheritance tax (IHT) implications and benefits of Alvaro Pelorus varying the terms of his
father’s will such that part of Ray Pelorus’s estate is left to Vito and Sophie. State the date by which a
deed of variation would need to be made in order for it to be valid; (3 marks)
(c) (i) Variation of Ray’s will
The variation by Alvaro of Ray’s will, such that assets are left to Vito and Sophie, will not be regarded as a gift by Alvaro.
Instead, provided the deed states that it is intended to be effective for IHT purposes, it will be as if Ray had left the assets
to the children in his will.
This strategy, known as skipping a generation, will have no effect on the IHT due on Ray’s death but will reduce the
assets owned by Alvaro and thus his potential UK IHT liability. A deed of variation is more tax efficient than Alvaro
making gifts to the children as such gifts would be PETs and IHT may be due if Alvaro were to die within seven years.
The deed of variation must be entered into by 31 January 2009, i.e. within two years of the date of Ray’s death.
2 Traditionally, the only objective of a business was to make a profit. However, some writers have suggested that this idea is simplistic and that profitability is only one objective amongst many.
State and explain Drucker’s eight classifications of objectives.
2 For the complex, modern business, the view that the single objective of business is to make a profit is regarded by many writers as simplistic. Peter Drucker has argued that for a business to be successful, it must address a number of objectives.
Drucker was one of the first writers to identify the dangers of the single objective of profit maximisation. Concentrating on a single objective (invariably profit) is not only unproductive but potentially harmful to the organisation and can endanger the survival of the business and seriously undermine its future. He argues that business organisations have in fact eight objectives, all of which must be addressed concurrently. These eight objectives are particularly relevant to management, bringing together as they do the need to address all the issues with which the organisation is concerned.
Market standing is the need to identify and maintain market share and to ensure the development of new products to maintain share. Without market standing, no organisation can succeed.
Innovation is the need to develop and find new products and processes; no business can survive on providing the same product or service over the long term. Innovation is fundamental to understanding growth; organisations grow by developing innovative differences to their competitors.
Productivity and ‘contributed value’ recognises the need for efficiency and the efficient use of business resources.
Physical and financial resources is a recognition of the need to use the correct and appropriate financial resources.
Profitability. The word ‘profit’ does not appear, but ‘profitability’. Here there are three important determinants, profitability as a measure of effectiveness (many businesses make a profit which in fact is a poor return on the effort produced), the need for profit so that the business can be self-financing and the need to attract new capital.
Manager performance and development is the explicit recognition that the business requires objectives and that management activity can be linked directly to those objectives.
Worker performance and attitude is recognition that it is vital to measure the performance of the workforce by such means as labour turnover. However, worker attitude is more difficult to measure, but should be attempted.
Public responsibility has become an issue in the twenty-first century. Any business needs to be aware that it is a part of the community within which it operates and is therefore part of a wider social system.
(ii) The sales director has suggested to Damian, that to encourage the salesmen to accept the new arrangement,
the company should increase the value of the accessories of their own choice that can be fitted to the low
State, giving reasons, whether or not Damian should implement the sales director’s suggestion.
(ii) Damian should not agree to the sales director’s suggestion. The salesmen will each make a significant annual income
tax saving under the proposal, whereas the company will also be offset (at least partly) by the reduction in the dealer’s
bulk discount. Further, 100% first year allowance tax incentive for low emission cars is not guaranteed beyond 31 March
2008, and it is unlikely that any change in policy with regards to the provision of additional accessories will, once
implemented, be easily reversible.
(ii) equipment used in the manufacture of Bachas Blue; and (4 marks)
(ii) Equipment used in the manufacture of Bachas Blue
Tutorial note: In the context of GVF, the principal issue to be addressed is whether or not the impairment loss previously
recognised should be reversed (by considering the determination of value in use). Marks will also be awarded for
consideration of depreciation, additions etc made specific to this equipment.
■ Agree cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses at the beginning of the year to prior year working
papers (and/or last year’s published financial statements).
■ Recalculate the current year depreciation charge based on the carrying amount (as reduced by the impairment
■ Calculate the carrying amount of the equipment as at 30 September 2005 without deduction of the impairment
Tutorial note: The equipment cannot be written back up to above this amount (IAS 36 ‘Impairment of Assets’).
■ Agree management’s schedule of future cash flows estimated to be attributable to the equipment for a period of up
to five years (unless a longer period can be justified) to approved budgets and forecasts.
– on a sample basis, the make up of the cash flows included in the forecast;
– GVF’s weighted average cost of capital.
■ Review production records and sales orders for the year, as compared with the prior period, to confirm a ‘steady
■ Compare sales volume at 30 September 2005 with the pre-‘scare’ level to assess how much of the previously
recognised impairment loss it would be prudent to write back (if any).
■ Scrutinize sales orders in the post balance sheet event period. Sales of such produce can be very volatile and
another ‘incident’ could have sales plummeting again – in which case the impairment loss should not be reversed.
2 Clifford and Amanda, currently aged 54 and 45 respectively, were married on 1 February 1998. Clifford is a higher
rate taxpayer who has realised taxable capital gains in 2007/08 in excess of his capital gains tax annual exemption.
Clifford moved into Amanda’s house in London on the day they were married. Clifford’s own house in Oxford, where
he had lived since acquiring it for ￡129,400 on 1 August 1996, has been empty since that date although he and
Amanda have used it when visiting friends. Clifford has been offered ￡284,950 for the Oxford house and has decided
that it is time to sell it. The house has a large garden such that Clifford is also considering an offer for the house and
a part only of the garden. He would then sell the remainder of the garden at a later date as a building plot. His total
sales proceeds will be higher if he sells the property in this way.
Amanda received the following income from quoted investments in 2006/07:
Dividends in respect of quoted trading company shares 1,395
Dividends paid by a Real Estate Investment Trust out of tax exempt property income 485
On 1 May 2006, Amanda was granted a 22 year lease of a commercial investment property. She paid the landlord
a premium of ￡6,900 and also pays rent of ￡2,100 per month. On 1 June 2006 Amanda granted a nine year
sub-lease of the property. She received a premium of ￡14,700 and receives rent of ￡2,100 per month.
On 1 September 2006 Amanda gave quoted shares with a value of ￡2,200 to a registered charity. She paid broker’s
fees of ￡115 in respect of the gift.
Amanda began working for Shearer plc, a quoted company, on 1 June 2006 having had a two year break from her
career. She earns an annual salary of ￡38,600 and was paid a bonus of ￡5,750 in August 2006 for agreeing to
come and work for the company. On 1 August 2006 Amanda was provided with a fully expensed company car,
including the provision of private petrol, which had a list price when new of ￡23,400 and a CO2 emissions rate of
187 grams per kilometre. Amanda is required to pay Shearer plc ￡22 per month in respect of the private use of the
car. In June and July 2006 Amanda used her own car whilst on company business. She drove 720 business miles
during this two month period and was paid 34 pence per mile. Amanda had PAYE of ￡6,785 deducted from her gross
salary in the tax year 2006/07.
After working for Shearer plc for a full year, Amanda becomes entitled to the following additional benefits:
– The opportunity to purchase a large number of shares in Shearer plc on 1 July 2007 for ￡3·30 per share. It is
anticipated that the share price on that day will be at least ￡7·50 per share. The company will make an interestfree
loan to Amanda equal to the cost of the shares to be repaid in two years.
– Exclusive free use of the company sailing boat for one week in August 2007. The sailing boat was purchased by
Shearer plc in January 2005 for use by its senior employees and costs the company ￡1,400 a week in respect
of its crew and other running expenses.
(a) (i) Calculate Clifford’s capital gains tax liability for the tax year 2007/08 on the assumption that the Oxford
house together with its entire garden is sold on 31 July 2007 for ￡284,950. Comment on the relevance
to your calculations of the size of the garden; (5 marks)
2 (a) Define the following terms:
(i) Forensic Accounting;
(ii) Forensic Investigation;
(iii) Forensic Auditing. (6 marks)
2 Crocus Co
(a) (i) Forensic accounting utilises accounting, auditing, and investigative skills to conduct an examination into a company’s
financial statements. The aim of forensic accounting is to provide an accounting analysis that is potentially suitable for
use in court. Forensic accounting is an umbrella term encompassing both forensic investigations and forensic audits. It
includes the audit of financial information to prove or disprove a fraud, the interview process used during an
investigation, and the act of serving as an expert witness.
Tutorial note: Forensic accounting can be used in a very wide range of situations, e.g. settling monetary disputes in
relation to a business closure, marriage break up, insurance claim, etc. Credit will be awarded for any reasonable
(ii) A forensic investigation is a process whereby a forensic accountant carries out procedures to gather evidence, which
could ultimately be used in legal proceedings or to settle disputes. This could include, for example, an investigation into
money laundering. A forensic investigation involves many stages (similar to an audit), including planning, evidence
gathering, quality control reviews, and finally results in the production of a report.
(iii) Forensic auditing is the specific use of audit procedures within a forensic investigation to find facts and gather evidence,
usually focused on the quantification of a financial loss. This could include, for example, the use of analytical
procedures, and substantive procedures to determine the amount of an insurance claim.
(c) (i) Using ONLY the above information, assess the competitive position of Diverse Holdings Plc.
(c) (i) Organic Foods Ltd (OFL) with a market share of 6·66% is the market leader at 30 November 2005 and is forecast to
have a market share of 8% by 30 November 2007. Operating profits appear to be healthy and therefore it seems
reasonable to regard OFL as a current ‘strength’ of Diverse Holdings Plc. This is supported by the fact that OFL has built
up a very good reputation as a supplier of quality produce.
Haul Trans Ltd was acquired on 1 December 2005 and has a demonstrable record of recent profitability. It is noticeable
that the profitability of HTL is forecast to increase by 40% (excluding inflation) during its first two years of ownership.
No one organisation appears to dominate the market. Forecast profits are expected to grow significantly from an almost
static turnover and thus more information is required regarding how this increase in profitability is to be achieved.
Management may have identified opportunities for achieving significant cost savings and/or forming business
relationships with new and more profitable customers, while ceasing to service those customers who are less profitable.
Kitchen Appliances Ltd (KAL) has been identified as both a weakness and threat. KAL’s market is slowly contracting,
but its share is falling more quickly. It was almost the market leader at 30 November 2005. Judging by its fall in the
level of operating profit KAL is carrying heavy fixed costs which must make it more difficult to compete. Indeed, it is
forecast to make a loss during the year ending 30 November 2007. KAL has suffered from squeezed margins as a
consequence of competition from low cost imports. The situation may be further exacerbated as competition from abroad
Paper Supplies Ltd (PSL) has stood still in a growing market, one which is dominated by a single supplier. PSL appears
to be struggling to achieve any growth in turnover, profits and therefore cash flow. PSL cannot really compete with a
narrow range of products and only two customers.
Office Products Ltd (OPL) is growing but appears unable to increase its operating profit in % terms. It appears to be
operating in a high-growth market but unable to achieve a reasonable market share in spite of the fact that its products
are highly regarded by health and safety experts.
(b) While the refrigeration units were undergoing modernisation Lamont outsourced all its cold storage requirements
to Hogg Warehousing Services. At 31 March 2007 it was not possible to physically inspect Lamont’s inventory
held by Hogg due to health and safety requirements preventing unauthorised access to cold storage areas.
Lamont’s management has provided written representation that inventory held at 31 March 2007 was
$10·1 million (2006 – $6·7 million). This amount has been agreed to a costing of Hogg’s monthly return of
quantities held at 31 March 2007. (7 marks)
For each of the above issues:
(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and
(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,
in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Lamont Co for the year ended
31 March 2007.
NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.
(b) Outsourced cold storage
■ Inventory at 31 March 2007 represents 21% of total assets (10·1/48·0) and is therefore a very material item in the
■ The value of inventory has increased by 50% though revenue has increased by only 7·5%. Inventory may be
overvalued if no allowance has been made for slow-moving/perished items in accordance with IAS 2 Inventories.
■ Inventory turnover has fallen to 6·6 times per annum (2006 – 9·3 times). This may indicate a build up of
Tutorial note: In the absence of cost of sales information, this is calculated on revenue. It may also be expressed
as the number of days sales in inventory, having increased from 39 to 55 days.
■ Inability to inspect inventory may amount to a limitation in scope if the auditor cannot obtain sufficient audit
evidence regarding quantity and its condition. This would result in an ‘except for’ opinion.
■ Although Hogg’s monthly return provides third party documentary evidence concerning the quantity of inventory it
does not provide sufficient evidence with regard to its valuation. Inventory will need to be written down if, for
example, it was contaminated by the leakage (before being moved to Hogg’s cold storage) or defrosted during
■ Lamont’s written representation does not provide sufficient evidence regarding the valuation of inventory as
presumably Lamont’s management did not have access to physically inspect it either. If this is the case this may
call into question the value of any other representations made by management.
■ Whether, since the balance sheet date, inventory has been moved back from Hogg’s cold storage to Lamont’s
refrigeration units. If so, a physical inspection and roll-back of the most significant fish lines should have been
Tutorial note: Credit will be awarded for other relevant accounting issues. For example a candidate may question
whether, for example, cold storage costs have been capitalised into the cost of inventory. Or whether inventory moves
on a FIFO basis in deep storage (rather than LIFO).
(ii) Audit evidence
■ A copy of the health and safety regulation preventing the auditor from gaining access to Hogg’s cold storage to
inspect Lamont’s inventory.
■ Analysis of Hogg’s monthly returns and agreement of significant movements to purchase/sales invoices.
■ Analytical procedures such as month-on-month comparison of gross profit percentage and inventory turnover to
identify any trend that may account for the increase in inventory valuation (e.g. if Lamont has purchased
replacement inventory but spoiled items have not been written off).
■ Physical inspection of any inventory in Lamont’s refrigeration units after the balance sheet date to confirm its
■ An aged-inventory analysis and recalculation of any allowance for slow-moving items.
■ A review of after-date sales invoices for large quantities of fish to confirm that fair value (less costs to sell) exceed
■ A review of after-date credit notes for any returns of contaminated/perished or otherwise substandard fish.
This scenario summarises the development of a company called Rock Bottom through three phases, from its founding in 1965 to 2008 when it ceased trading.
Phase 1 (1965–1988)
In 1965 customers usually purchased branded electrical goods, largely produced by well-established domestic companies, from general stores that stocked a wide range of household products. However, in that year, a recent university graduate, Rick Hein, established his first shop specialising solely in the sale of electrical goods. In contrast to the general stores, Rick Hein’s shop predominantly sold imported Japanese products which were smaller, more reliable and more sophisticated than the products of domestic competitors. Rick Hein quickly established a chain of shops, staffed by young people who understood the capabilities of the products they were selling. He backed this up with national advertising in the press, an innovation at the time for such a specialist shop. He branded his shops as ‘Rock Bottom’, a name which specifically referred to his cheap prices, but also alluded to the growing importance of
rock music and its influence on product sales. In 1969, 80% of sales were of music centres, turntables, amplifiers and speakers, bought by the newly affluent young. Rock Bottom began increasingly to specialise in selling audio equipment.
Hein also developed a high public profile. He dressed unconventionally and performed a number of outrageous stunts that publicised his company. He also encouraged the managers of his stores to be equally outrageous. He rewarded their individuality with high salaries, generous bonus schemes and autonomy. Many of the shops were extremely successful, making their managers (and some of their staff) relatively wealthy people.
However, by 1980 the profitability of the Rock Bottom shops began to decline significantly. Direct competitors using a similar approach had emerged, including specialist sections in the large general stores that had initially failed to react to the challenge of Rock Bottom. The buying public now expected its electrical products to be cheap and reliable.
Hein himself became less flamboyant and toned down his appearance and actions to satisfy the banks who were becoming an increasingly important source of the finance required to expand and support his chain of shops.
Phase 2 (1989–2002)
In 1988 Hein considered changing the Rock Bottom shops into a franchise, inviting managers to buy their own shops (which at this time were still profitable) and pursuing expansion though opening new shops with franchisees from outside the company. However, instead, he floated the company on the country’s stock exchange. He used some of the capital raised to expand the business. However, he also sold shares to help him throw the ‘party of a lifetime’ and to purchase expensive goods and gifts for his family. Hein became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the newly quoted company, but over the next thirteen years his relationship with his board and shareholders became increasingly difficult. Gradually new financial controls and reporting systems were put in place. Most of the established managers left as controls became more centralised and formal. The company’s performance was solid but unspectacular. Hein complained that ‘business was not fun any more’. The company was legally required to publish directors’ salaries in its annual report and the generous salary package enjoyed by the Chairman and CEO increasingly became an issue and it dominated the 2002 Annual General Meeting (AGM). Hein was embarrassed by its publication and the discussion it led to in the national media. He felt that it was an infringement of his privacy and
Phase 3 (2003–2008)
In 2003 Hein found the substantial private equity investment necessary to take Rock Bottom private again. He also used all of his personal fortune to help re-acquire the company from the shareholders. He celebrated ‘freeing Rock Bottom from its shackles’ by throwing a large celebration party. Celebrities were flown in from all over the world to attend. However, most of the new generation of store managers found Hein’s style. to be too loose and unfocused. He became rude and angry about their lack of entrepreneurial spirit. Furthermore, changes in products and how they were purchased meant that fewer people bought conventional audio products from specialist shops. The reliability of these products now meant that they were replaced relatively infrequently. Hein, belatedly, started to consider selling via an Internet site. Turnover and profitability plummeted. In 2007 Hein again considered franchising the company,but he realised that this was unlikely to be successful. In early 2008 the company ceased trading and Hein himself,now increasingly vilified and attacked by the press, filed for personal bankruptcy.
(a) Analyse the reasons for Rock Bottom’s success or failure in each of the three phases identified in the
scenario. Evaluate how Rick Hein’s leadership style. contributed to the success or failure of each phase.
(b) Rick Hein considered franchising the Rock Bottom brand at two points in its history – 1988 and 2007.
Explain the key factors that would have made franchising Rock Bottom feasible in 1988, but would have
made it ‘unlikely to be successful’ in 2007. (7 marks)
(a) The product life cycle model suggests that a product passes through six stages: introduction, development, growth, shakeout,
maturity and decline. The first Rock Bottom phase appears to coincide with the introduction, development and growth periods
of the products offered by the company. These highly specified, high quality products were new to the country and were
quickly adopted by a certain consumer segment (see below). The life cycle concept also applies to services, and the innovative
way in which Rock Bottom sold and marketed the products distinguished the company from potential competitors. Not only
were these competitors still selling inferior and older products but their retail methods looked outdated compared with Rock Bottom’s bright, specialist shops. Rock Bottom’s entry into the market-place also exploited two important changes in the
external environment. The first was the technological advance of the Japanese consumer electronics industry. The second
was the growing economic power of young people, who wished to spend their increasing disposable income on products that
allowed them to enjoy popular music. Early entrants into an industry gain experience of that industry sooner than others. This
may not only be translated into cost advantages but also into customer loyalty that helps them through subsequent stages of
the product’s life cycle. Rock Bottom enjoyed the advantages of a first mover in this industry.
Hein’s leadership style. appears to have been consistent with contemporary society and more than acceptable to his young
target market. As an entrepreneur, his charismatic leadership was concerned with building a vision for the organisation and
then energising people to achieve it. The latter he achieved through appointing branch managers who reflected, to some
degree, his own style. and approach. His willingness to delegate considerable responsibility to these leaders, and to reward
them well, was also relatively innovative. The shops were also staffed by young people who understood the capabilities of the
products they were selling. It was an early recognition that intangible resources of skills and knowledge were important to the
In summary, in the first phase Rock Bottom’s organisation and Hein’s leadership style. appear to have been aligned with
contemporary society, the customer base, employees and Rock Bottom’s position in the product/service life cycle.
The second phase of the Rock Bottom story appears to reflect the shakeout and maturity phases of the product life cycle. The
entry of competitors into the market is a feature of the growth stage. However, it is in the shakeout stage that the market
becomes saturated with competitors. The Rock Bottom product and service approach is easily imitated. Hein initially reacted
to these new challenges by a growing maturity, recognising that outrageous behaviour might deter the banks from lending to
him. However, the need to raise money to fund expansion and a latent need to realise (and enjoy) his investment led to the
company being floated on the country’s stock exchange. This, eventually, created two problems.
The first was the need for the company to provide acceptable returns to shareholders. This would have been a new challenge
for Hein. He would have to not only maintain dividends to external shareholders, but he would also have to monitor and
improve the publicly quoted share price. In an attempt to establish an organisation that could deliver such value, changes
were made in the organisational structure and style. Most of the phase 1 entrepreneur-style. managers left. This may have
been inevitable anyway as Rock Bottom would have had problems continuing with such high individual reward packages in
a maturing market. However, the new public limited organisation also demanded managers who were more transactional
leaders, focusing on designing systems and controlling performance. This style. of management was alien to Rick’s approach.
The second problem was the need for the organisation to become more transparent. The publishing of Hein’s financial details
was embarrassing, particularly as his income fuelled a life-style. that was becoming less acceptable to society. What had once
appeared innovative and amusing now looked like an indulgence. The challenge now was for Hein to change his leadership
style. to suit the new situation. However, he ultimately failed to do this. Like many leaders who have risen to their position
through entrepreneurial ability and a dominant spirit, the concept of serving stakeholders rather than ordering them around
proved too difficult to grasp. The sensible thing would have been to leave Rock Bottom and start afresh. However, like many
entrepreneurs he was emotionally attached to the company and so he persuaded a group of private equity financiers to help
him buy it back. Combining the roles of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is also controversial and likely to attract
criticism concerning corporate governance.
In summary, in the second phase of Hein’s leadership he failed to change his approach to reflect changing social values, a
maturing product/service market-place and the need to serve new and important stakeholders in the organisation. He clearly
saw the public limited company as a ‘shackle’ on his ambition and its obligations an infringement of his personal privacy.
It can be argued that Hein took Rock Bottom back into private ownership just as the product life cycle moved into its decline
stage. The product life cycle is a timely reminder that any product or service has a finite life. Forty years earlier, as a young
man, Hein was in touch with the technological and social changes that created a demand for his product and service.
However, he had now lost touch with the forces shaping the external environment. Products have now moved on. Music is
increasingly delivered through downloaded files that are then played through computers (for home use) or MP3s (for portable
use). Even where consumers use traditional electronic equipment, the reliability of this equipment means that it is seldom
replaced. The delivery method, through specialised shops, which once seemed so innovative is now widely imitated and
increasingly, due to the Internet, less cost-effective. Consumers of these products are knowledgeable buyers and are only
willing to purchase, after careful cost and delivery comparisons, through the Internet. Hence, Hein is in a situation where he
faces more competition to supply products which are used and replaced less frequently, using a sales channel that is
increasingly uncompetitive. Consequently, Hein’s attempt to re-vitalise the shops by using the approach he adopted in phase
1 of the company was always doomed to failure. This failure was also guaranteed by the continued presence of the managers
appointed in phase 2 of the company. These were managers used to tight controls and targets set by centralised management.
To suddenly be let loose was not what they wanted and Hein appears to have reacted to their inability to act entrepreneurially
with anger and abuse. Hein’s final acts of reinvention concerned the return to a hedonistic, conspicuous life style. that he had
enjoyed in the early days of the company. He probably felt that this was possible now that he did not have the reporting
requirements of the public limited company. However, he had failed to recognise significant changes in society. He celebrated
the freeing of ‘Rock Bottom from its shackles’ by throwing a large celebration party. Celebrities were flown in from all over the
world to attend. It seems inevitable that the cost and carbon footprint of such an event would now attract criticism.
Finally, in summary, Hein’s approach and leadership style. in phase 3 became increasingly out of step with society’s
expectations, customers’ requirements and employees’ expectations. However, unlike phase 2, Hein was now free of the
responsibilities and controls of professional management in a public limited company. This led him to conspicuous activities
that further devalued the brand, meaning that its demise was inevitable.
(b) At the end of the first phase Hein still had managers who were entrepreneurial in their outlook. It might have been attractive
for them to become franchisees, particularly as this might be a way of protecting their income through the more challenging
stages of the product and service life cycle that lay ahead. However, by the time Hein came to look at franchising again (phase
3), the managers were unlikely to be of the type that would take up the challenge of running a franchise. These were
managers used to meeting targets within the context of centrally determined policies and budgets within a public limited
company. Hein would have to make these employees redundant (at significant cost) and with no certainty that he could find
franchisees to replace them.
At the end of phase 1, Rock Bottom was a strong brand, associated with youth and innovation. First movers often retain
customer loyalty even when their products and approach have been imitated by new aggressive entrants to the market. A
strong brand is essential for a successful franchise as it is a significant part of what the franchisee is buying. However, by the
time Hein came to look at franchising again in phase 3, the brand was devalued by his behaviour and incongruent with
customer expectations and sales channels. For example, it had no Internet sales channel. If Hein had developed Rock Bottom
as a franchise it would have given him the opportunity to focus on building the brand, rather than financing the expansion
of the business through the issue of shares.
At the end of phase 1, Rock Bottom was still a financially successful company. If it had been franchised at this point, then
Hein could have realised some of his investment (through franchise fees) and used some of this to reward himself, and the
rest of the money could have been used to consolidate the brand. Much of the future financial risk would have been passed
to the franchisees. There would have been no need to take Rock Bottom public and so suffer the scrutiny associated with a
public limited company. However, by the time Hein came to look at franchising again in phase 3, most of the shops were
trading at a loss. He saw franchising as a way of disposing of the company in what he hoped was a sufficiently well-structured
way. In effect, it was to minimise losses. It seems highly unlikely that franchisees would have been attracted by investing in
something that was actually making a loss. Even if they were, it is unlikely that the franchise fees (and hence the money
immediately realised) would be very high.
(ii) A proposal which will increase the after tax proceeds from the sale of the Snapper plc loan stock and a
reasoned recommendation of a more appropriate form. of external finance. (3 marks)
(ii) Proposal to increase the after tax proceeds from the sale of the loan stock
AS should delay the sale of the loan stock until after 5 April 2008. The gain made at the time of the takeover would
then crystallise in 2008/09 and would be covered by the annual exemption for that year. The net proceeds would be
increased by the capital gains tax saved of ￡3,446 (￡8,616 x 40%).
More appropriate forms of external finance
A bank overdraft is not the most appropriate form. of long term business finance. This is because the bank can demand
repayment of the overdraft at any time and the rates of interest charged are fairly high.
AS should seek long term finance for his long term business needs, for example a bank loan secured on the theatre, and
use the bank overdraft to finance the working capital required on a day-to-day basis.
(ii) List the additional information required in order to calculate the employment income benefit in respect
of the provision of the furnished flat for 2007/08 and advise Benny of the potential income tax
implications of requesting a more centrally located flat in accordance with the company’s offer.
(ii) The flat
The following additional information is required in order to calculate the employment income benefit in respect of the
– The flat’s annual value.
– The cost of any improvements made to the flat prior to 6 April 2007.
– The cost of power, water, repairs and maintenance etc borne by Summer Glow plc.
– The cost of the furniture provided by Summer Glow plc.
– Any use of the flat by Benny wholly, exclusively and necessarily for the purposes of his employment.
The market value of the flat is not required as Summer Glow plc has owned it for less than six years.
One element of the employment income benefit in respect of the flat is calculated by reference to its original cost plus
the cost of any capital improvements prior to 6 April 2007. If Benny requests a flat in a different location, this element
of the benefit will be computed instead by reference to the cost of the new flat, which in turn equals the proceeds of
sale of the old flat.
Accordingly, if, as is likely, the value of the flat has increased since it was purchased, Benny’s employment income
benefit will also increase. The increase in the employment income benefit will be the flat’s sales proceeds less its original
cost less the cost of any capital improvements prior to 6 April 2007 multiplied by 5%.
(c) non-consolidated entities under common control. (4 marks)
(c) Non-consolidated entities under common control
■ Horizontal groups of entities under common control were a significant feature of the Enron and Parmalat business
■ Such business empires increase audit risk as fraud is often disguised through labyrinthine group structures. Hence
auditors need to understand and confirm the economic purpose of entities within business empires (as well as special
purpose entities (SPEs) and non-trading entities).
■ Horizontal groups fall outside the requirement for the preparation of group accounts. It is not only finance that is offbalance
sheet when controlled entities are excluded from consolidated financial statements.
■ In the absence of consolidated financial statements, users of accounts of entities in horizontal groups have to rely on the
disclosure of related party transactions and control relationships for information about transactions and arrangements
with other group entities. Difficulties faced by auditors include:
? failing to detect related party transactions and control relationships;
? not understanding the substance of transactions with entities under common control;
? excessively creative tax planning;
? the implications of transfer pricing (e.g. failure to recognise profits unrealised at the business empire level);
? a lack of access to relevant confidential information held by others;
? relying on representations made in good faith by those whom the auditors believe manage the company when
control rests elsewhere.
■ Audit work is inevitably increased if an auditor is put upon inquiry to investigate dubious transactions and arrangements.
However, the complexity of business empires across multiple jurisdictions with different auditors may deter auditors from
liaising with other auditors (especially where legal or professional confidentiality considerations prevent this).
(ii) Advise Mr Fencer of the income tax implications of the proposed financing arrangements. (2 marks)
(ii) The income tax implications of the proposed financing arrangements
Mr Fencer has borrowed money from a UK bank in order to make a loan to Rapier Ltd, a close company. The interest
paid by Mr Fencer to the bank will be an allowable charge on income as long as he continues to hold more than 5% of
Rapier Ltd. Charges on income are deductible in arriving at an individual’s statutory total income.
Mr Fencer will receive interest from Rapier Ltd net of 20% income tax. The gross amount of interest will be subject to
income tax at either 10%, 20% or 40% depending on whether the income falls into Mr Fencer’s starting rate, basic rate
or higher rate tax band. Mr Fencer will obtain a tax credit for the 20% income tax suffered at source.
1 Stuart is a self-employed business consultant aged 58. He is married to Rebecca, aged 55. They have one child,
Sam, who is aged 24 and single.
In November 2005 Stuart sold a house in Plymouth for ￡422,100. Stuart had inherited the house on the death of
his mother on 1 May 1994 when it had a probate value of ￡185,000. The subsequent pattern of occupation was as
1 May 1994 to 28 February 1995 occupied by Stuart and Rebecca as main residence
1 March 1995 to 31 December 1998 unoccupied
1 January 1999 to 31 March 2001 let out (unfurnished)
1 April 2001 to 30 November 2001 occupied by Stuart and Rebecca
1 December 2001 to 30 November 2005 used occasionally as second home
Both Stuart and Rebecca had lived in London from March 1995 onwards. On 1 March 2001 Stuart and Rebecca
bought a house in London in their joint names. On 1 January 2002 they elected for their London house to be their
principal private residence with effect from that date, up until that point the Plymouth property had been their principal
No other capital disposals were made by Stuart in the tax year 2005/06. He has ￡29,500 of capital losses brought
forward from previous years.
Stuart intends to invest the gross sale proceeds from the sale of the Plymouth house, and is considering two
investment options, both of which he believes will provide equal risk and returns. These are as follows:
(1) acquiring shares in Omikron plc; or
(2) acquiring further shares in Omega plc.
1. Omikron plc is a listed UK trading company, with 50,250,000 shares in issue. Its shares currently trade at 42p
2. Stuart and Rebecca helped start up the company, which was then Omega Ltd. The company was formed on
1 June 1990, when they each bought 24,000 shares for ￡1 per share. The company became listed on 1 May
1997. On this date their holding was subdivided, with each of them receiving 100 shares in Omega plc for each
share held in Omega Ltd. The issued share capital of Omega plc is currently 10,000,000 shares. The share price
is quoted at 208p – 216p with marked bargains at 207p, 211p, and 215p.
Stuart and Rebecca’s assets (following the sale of the Plymouth house but before any investment of the proceeds) are
Assets Stuart Rebecca
Family house in London 450,000 450,000
Cash from property sale 422,100 –
Cash deposits 165,000 165,000
Portfolio of quoted investments – 250,000
Shares in Omega plc see above see above
Life insurance policy note 1 note 1
1. The life insurance policy will pay out a sum of ￡200,000 on the death of the first spouse to die.
Stuart has recently been diagnosed with a serious illness. He is expected to live for another two or three years only.
He is concerned about the possible inheritance tax that will arise on his death. Both he and Rebecca have wills whose
terms transfer all assets to the surviving spouse. Rebecca is in good health.
Neither Stuart nor Rebecca has made any previous chargeable lifetime transfers for the purposes of inheritance tax.
(a) Calculate the taxable capital gain on the sale of the Plymouth house in November 2005 (9 marks)
Note that the last 36 months count as deemed occupation, as the house was Stuart’s principal private residence (PPR)
at some point during his period of ownership.
The first 36 months of the period from 1 March 1995 to 31 March 2001 qualifies as a deemed occupation period as
Stuart and Rebecca returned to occupy the property on 1 April 2001. The remainder of the period will be treated as a
period of absence, although letting relief is available for part of the period (see below).
The exempt element of the gain is the proportion during which the property was occupied, real or deemed. This is
￡138,665 (90/139 x ￡214,160).
(2) The chargeable gain is restricted for the period that the property was let out. This is restricted to the lowest of the
(i) the gain attributable to the letting period (27/139 x 214,160) = ￡41,599
(iii) the total exempt PPR gain = ￡138,665
(3) The taper relief is effectively wasted, having restricted losses b/f to preserve the annual exemption.
3 Local neighbourhood shops are finding it increasingly difficult to compete with supermarkets. However, three years
ago, the Perfect Shopper franchise group was launched that allowed these neighbourhood shops to join the group
and achieve cost savings on tinned and packaged goods, particularly groceries. Perfect Shopper purchases branded
goods in bulk from established food suppliers and stores them in large purpose-built warehouses, each designed to
serve a geographical region. When Perfect Shopper was established it decided that deliveries to these warehouses
should be made by the food suppliers or by haulage contractors working on behalf of these suppliers. Perfect Shopper
places orders with these suppliers and the supplier arranges the delivery to the warehouse. These arrangements are
still in place. Perfect Shopper has no branded goods of its own.
Facilities are available in each warehouse to re-package goods into smaller units, more suitable for the requirements
of the neighbourhood shop. These smaller units, typically containing 50–100 tins or packs, are usually small trays,
sealed with strong transparent polythene. Perfect Shopper delivers these to its neighbourhood shops using specialist
haulage contractors local to the regional warehouse. Perfect Shopper has negotiated significant discounts with
suppliers, part of which it passes on to its franchisees. A recent survey in a national grocery magazine showed that
franchisees saved an average of 10% on the prices they would have paid if they had purchased the products directly
from the manufacturer or from an intermediary – such as cash and carry wholesalers.
As well as offering savings due to bulk buying, Perfect Shopper also provides, as part of its franchise:
(i) Personalised promotional material. This usually covers specific promotions and is distributed locally, either using
specialist leaflet distributors or loosely inserted into local free papers or magazines.
(ii) Specialised signage for the shops to suggest the image of a national chain. The signs include the Perfect Shopper
slogan ‘the nation’s local’.
(iii) Specialist in-store display units for certain goods, again branded with the Perfect Shopper logo.
Perfect Shopper does not provide all of the goods required by a neighbourhood shop. Consequently, it is not an
exclusive franchise. Franchisees agree to purchase specific products through Perfect Shopper, but other goods, such
as vegetables, fruit, stationery and newspapers they source from elsewhere. Deliveries are made every two weeks to
franchisees using a standing order for products agreed between the franchisee and their Perfect Shopper sales
representative at a meeting they hold every three months. Variations to this order can be made by telephone, but only
if the order is increased. Downward variations are not allowed. Franchisees cannot reduce their standing order
requirements until the next meeting with their representative.
Perfect Shopper was initially very successful, but its success has been questioned by a recent independent report that
showed increasing discontent amongst franchisees. The following issues were documented.
(i) The need to continually review prices to compete with supermarkets
(ii) Low brand recognition of Perfect Shopper
(iii) Inflexible ordering and delivery system based around forecasts and restricted ability to vary orders (see above)
As a result of this survey, Perfect Shopper has decided to review its business model. Part of this review is to reexamine
the supply chain, to see if there are opportunities for addressing some of its problems.
(a) Describe the primary activities of the value chain of Perfect Shopper. (5 marks)
(a) Inbound logistics: Handling and storing bulk orders delivered by suppliers and stored on large pallets in regional warehouses.
All inbound logistics currently undertaken by the food suppliers or by contractors appointed by these suppliers.
Operations: Splitting bulk pallets into smaller packages, packing, sealing and storing these packages.
Outbound logistics: Delivery to neighbourhood shops using locally contracted distribution companies.
Marketing & Sales: Specially commissioned signs and personalised sales literature. Promotions and special offers.
Service: Specialist in-store display units for certain goods, three monthly meeting between franchisee and representative.
4 You are an audit manager in Smith & Co, a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants. You have recently been made
responsible for reviewing invoices raised to clients and for monitoring your firm’s credit control procedures. Several
matters came to light during your most recent review of client invoice files:
Norman Co, a large private company, has not paid an invoice from Smith & Co dated 5 June 2007 for work in respect
of the financial statement audit for the year ended 28 February 2007. A file note dated 30 November 2007 states
that Norman Co is suffering poor cash flows and is unable to pay the balance. This is the only piece of information
in the file you are reviewing relating to the invoice. You are aware that the final audit work for the year ended
28 February 2008, which has not yet been invoiced, is nearly complete and the audit report is due to be issued
Wallace Co, a private company whose business is the manufacture of industrial machinery, has paid all invoices
relating to the recently completed audit planning for the year ended 31 May 2008. However, in the invoice file you
notice an invoice received by your firm from Wallace Co. The invoice is addressed to Valerie Hobson, the manager
responsible for the audit of Wallace Co. The invoice relates to the rental of an area in Wallace Co’s empty warehouse,
with the following comment handwritten on the invoice: ‘rental space being used for storage of Ms Hobson’s
speedboat for six months – she is our auditor, so only charge a nominal sum of $100’. When asked about the invoice,
Valerie Hobson said that the invoice should have been sent to her private address. You are aware that Wallace Co
sometimes uses the empty warehouse for rental income, though this is not the main trading income of the company.
In the ‘miscellaneous invoices raised’ file, an invoice dated last week has been raised to Software Supply Co, not a
client of your firm. The comment box on the invoice contains the note ‘referral fee for recommending Software Supply
Co to several audit clients regarding the supply of bespoke accounting software’.
Identify and discuss the ethical and other professional issues raised by the invoice file review, and recommend
what action, if any, Smith & Co should now take in respect of:
(a) Norman Co; (8 marks)
4 Smith & Co
(a) Norman Co
The invoice is 12 months old and it appears doubtful whether the amount outstanding is recoverable. The fact that such an
old debt is unsettled indicates poor credit control by Smith & Co. Part of good practice management is to run a profitable,
cash generating audit function. The debt should not have been left outstanding for such a long period. It seems that little has
been done to secure payment since the file note was attached to the invoice in November 2007.
There is also a significant ethical issue raised. Overdue fees are a threat to objectivity and independence. Due to Norman Co
not yet paying for the 2007 year end audit, it could be perceived that the audit has been performed for free. Alternatively the
amount outstanding could be perceived as a loan to the client, creating a self-interest threat to independence.
The audit work for the year ended 28 February 2008 should not have been carried out without some investigation into the
unpaid invoice relating to the prior year audit. This also represents a self-interest threat – if fees are not collected before the
audit report is issued, an unmodified report could be seen as enhancing the prospect of securing payment. It seems that a
check has not been made to see if the prior year fee has been paid prior to the audit commencing.
It is also concerning that the audit report for the 2008 year end is about to be issued, but no invoice has been raised relating
to the work performed. To maximise cash inflow, the audit firm should invoice the client as soon as possible for work
Norman Co appears to be suffering financial distress. In this case there is a valid commercial reason why payment has not
been made – the client simply lacks cash. While this fact does not eliminate the problems noted above, it means that the
auditors can continue so long as adequate ethical safeguards are put in place, and after the monetary significance of the
amount outstanding has been evaluated.
It should also be considered whether Norman Co’s financial situation casts any doubt over the going concern of the company.
Continued cash flow problems are certainly a financial indicator of going concern problems, and if the company does not
resolve the cash flow problem then it may be unable to continue in operational existence.
Action to be taken:
– Discuss with the audit committee (if any) or those charged with governance of Norman Co:
The ethical problems raised by the non-payment of invoices, and a payment programme to secure cash payment in
stages if necessary, rather than demanding the total amount outstanding immediately.
– Notify the ethics partner of Smith & Co of the situation – the ethics partner should evaluate the ethical threat posed by
the situation and document the decision to continue to act for Norman Co.
– The documentation should include an evaluation of the monetary significance of the amount outstanding, as it will be
more difficult to justify the continuance of the audit appointment if the amount is significant.
– The ethics partner should ensure that a firm-wide policy is communicated to all audit managers requiring them to check
the payment of previous invoices before commencing new client work. This check should be documented.
– Consider an independent partner review of the working papers prepared for the 28 February 2008 audit.
– The audit working papers on going concern should be reviewed to ensure that sufficient evidence has been gathered to
support the audit opinion. Further procedures may be found to be necessary given the continued cash flow problems.
– Smith & Co have already acted to improve credit control by making a manager responsible for reviewing invoices and
monitoring subsequent cash collection. It is important that credit control procedures are quickly put into place to prevent
similar situations arising.
3 An organisation has decided to compare the benefits of promoting existing staff with those of appointing external
candidates and to assess whether the use of external recruitment consultants is appropriate.
(a) Describe the advantages of internal promotion. (5 marks)
3 All organisations rely upon their staff for success. However, recruitment of staff can be time consuming; a drain on resources and the necessary expertise may not exist within the organisation.
(a) Internal promotion describes the situation where an organisation has an explicit policy to promote from within and where there is a clear and transparent career structure. This is typical of many professional bodies, large organisations and public services.
The advantages of internal promotion are that it acts as a source of motivation, provides good general morale amongst employees and illustrates the organisation’s commitment to encouraging advancement. Recruitment is expensive and internal promotion is relatively inexpensive in terms of time, money and induction costs and since staff seeking promotion are known to the employer, training costs are minimised. Finally, the culture of the organisation is better understood by the individual.
(ii) State when the inheritance tax (IHT) calculated in (i) would be payable and by whom. (2 marks)
(ii) Inheritance tax administration
The tax on Debbie’s estate (personalty and realty) would be paid by the personal representatives, usually an executor.
Inheritance tax is due six months from the end of the month in which death occurred (31 December 2005) or the date
on which probate is obtained (if earlier). However, an instalment option is available for certain assets, which includes
land and buildings i.e. the residence whereby the tax can be paid in 10 equal annual instalments.
(b) Explanations of the various matters. (11 marks)
(b) Related matters
(i) National insurance contributions in 2007/08
The profit for the period ending 31 March 2008 is expected to be ￡1,200 (￡400 x 3).
No class 2 contributions will be due as the profit is less than the small earnings exception limit of ￡4,465.
No class 4 contributions will be due as the profit is less than the lower profits limit of ￡5,035.
Adam will have paid class 1 contributions in respect of his earnings from Rheims Ltd, thus preserving his entitlement
to state benefits and pension, and therefore there is no disadvantage in claiming the small earnings exemption from
class 2 contributions.
(ii) Purchase and renovation of the theatre
The theatre is a capital purchase that does not qualify for capital allowances as it is a building but not an industrial
building. Accordingly, the cost of purchasing the theatre will not give rise to a tax deduction for the purpose of computing
AS’s taxable trading income.
The tax treatment of the renovation costs may be summarised as follows:
– The costs will be disallowed if the renovations are necessary before the theatre can be used for business purposes.
This is because they will be regarded as further capital costs of acquiring appropriate premises.
– Some of the costs may be allowable if the condition of the theatre is such that it can be used in its present state
and the renovations are more in the nature of cosmetic improvements.
(iii) VAT position
The grant of a right to occupy the theatre in exchange for rent is an exempt supply. Accordingly, as all of AS’s activities
will be regarded as one for VAT purposes, AS will become partially exempt once he begins to rent out the theatre.
AS will be able to recover the input tax that is directly attributable to his standard rated supplies, i.e. those in connection
with the supply of children’s parties. He will also be able to recover a proportion of the input tax on his overheads; the
proportion being that of his total supplies that are standard rated.
The remainder of his input tax will only be recoverable if it is no more than ￡625 per month on average and no more
than 50% of his total input tax.
If AS were to opt to tax the theatre, the right to occupy the theatre in exchange for rent would then be a standard rated
supply. AS could then recover all of his input tax, regardless of the amount attributable to the rent, but would have to
charge VAT on the rent and on any future sale of the building.
The decision as to whether or not to opt to tax the theatre will depend on:
– the amount of input tax at stake; and
– whether or not those who rent the theatre are in a position to recover any VAT charged.
(c) Describe the audit procedures you should perform. to determine the validity of the amortisation rate of five
years being applied to development costs in relation to Plummet. (5 marks)
(c) Audit procedures to determine the validity of the amortisation rate of five years being applied to development costs in relation
to the product Plummet would include the following:
– Obtain the papers documenting market research carried out on Plummet. Review and ascertain that the market research
supports a product life span of five years.
– Review actual sales patterns since the launch of Plummet and compare to the predicted sales per the market research
Tutorial note: this will help to demonstrate the accuracy of the predicted sales forecast of Plummet.
– Read the assumptions underpinning the market research sales projections, and consider whether these assumptions
agree with the auditors’ understanding of the business.
– Discuss sales trends with the sales/marketing directors and ascertain whether sales are in line with management’s
– Read correspondence with retail outlets to ensure there is continued support for selling Plummet.
– Obtain marketing/advertising budgets and ascertain enough expenditure is continuing on Plummet to support continued
5 The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is currently in a joint project with the Accounting Standards
Board (ASB) in the UK and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the USA in the area of reporting
financial performance/comprehensive income. The main focus of the project is the development of a single statement
of comprehensive income to replace the income statement and statement of changes in equity. The objective is to
analyse all income and expenses and categorise them in a way that increases users’ understanding of the results of
an entity and assists in forming expectations of future income and expenditure. There seems to be some consensus
that the performance statement should be divided into three components being the results of operating activities,
financing and treasury activities, and other gains and losses.
(a) Describe the reasons why the three accounting standards boards have decided to cooperate and produce a
single statement of financial performance. (8 marks)
(a) The main reasons why the three accounting standards boards have decided to come together in a joint project regarding a
single performance statement are as follows:
(i) there are many different formats and classifications used for financial statements and different time periods used for
comparative data in different countries.
(ii) there are no common definitions as regards the key elements of financial performance and no agreement on the standard
definitions of the key ratios which would then determine the nature of the information that financial statements should
provide. There has been an increase in the reporting of alternative and often inconsistent financial performance
measures that has led to confusion and often has misled users.
(iii) there has been an increase in the use of pro-forma reporting which would tend to suggest that the existing totals and
sub totals in financial statements are not being used or relied upon as much as in the past.
(iv) there are benefits in separating transactions and events that are recorded at historical cost from those recorded at fair
value. Also, the differentiation between trading and holding gains gives useful information. This ‘mixed attribute’ model
is causing concern over the effects on reported performance.
(v) there is often insufficient disaggregation of data which prevents effective financial analysis of performance.
(vi) there has been an inconsistency in the use of ‘recycling ‘in financial statements of different jurisdictions which has led
to issues of reporting gains and losses twice.
(vii) the reporting of gains and losses on financial instruments required consideration. The gains and losses may currently be
reported under several headings dependent upon the nature of the instrument.
(viii) there are many relevant items excluded from the performance statements and inappropriate items included. For example
the reporting of foreign currency gains/losses on the retranslation of the net investment in foreign operations is normally
recognised in equity in many countries and dividends proposed shown on the face of the income statement when it does
not meet the definition of a liability and is a transaction with the owners of the business and not third parties.
(ix) Information is inconsistently classified within and outside totals and subtotals.
(b) When a director retires, amounts become payable to the director as a form. of retirement benefit as an annuity.
These amounts are not based on salaries paid to the director under an employment contract. Sirus has
contractual or constructive obligations to make payments to former directors as at 30 April 2008 as follows:
(i) certain former directors are paid a fixed annual amount for a fixed term beginning on the first anniversary of
the director’s retirement. If the director dies, an amount representing the present value of the future payment
is paid to the director’s estate.
(ii) in the case of other former directors, they are paid a fixed annual amount which ceases on death.
The rights to the annuities are determined by the length of service of the former directors and are set out in the
former directors’ service contracts. (6 marks)
Draft a report to the directors of Sirus which discusses the principles and nature of the accounting treatment of
the above elements under International Financial Reporting Standards in the financial statements for the year
ended 30 April 2008.
(b) Directors’ retirement benefits
The directors’ retirement benefits are unfunded plans which may fall under IAS19 ‘Employee Benefits’.
Sirus should review its contractual or constructive obligation to make retirement benefit payments to its former directors at the
time when they leave the firm. The payments may create a financial liability under IAS32, or may give rise to a liability of
uncertain timing and amount which may fall within the scope of IAS37 ‘Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent
assets’. Certain former directors are paid a fixed annuity for a fixed term which is payable annually, and on death, the present
value of future payments are paid to the director’s estate. An annuity meets the definition of a financial liability under IAS32,
if there is a contractual obligation to deliver cash or a financial asset. The latter form. of annuity falls within the scope of
IAS32/39. The present value of the annuity payments should be determined. The liability is recognised because the directors
have a contractual right to the annuity and the firm has no discretion in terms of withholding the payment. As the rights to
the annuities are earned over the period of the service of the directors, then the costs should have been recognised also over
the service period.
Where an annuity has a life contingent element and, therefore, embodies a mortality risk, it falls outside the scope of IAS39
because the annuity will meet the definition of an insurance contract which is scoped out of IAS39, along with employers’
rights and obligations under IAS19. Such annuities will, therefore, fall within the scope of IAS37 if a constructive obligation
exists. Sirus should assess the probability of the future cash outflow of the present obligation. Because there are a number of
similar obligations, IAS37 requires that the class of obligations as a whole should be considered (similar to a warranty
provision). A provision should be made for the best estimate of the costs of the annuity and this would include any liability
for post retirement payments to directors earned to date. The liability should be built up over the service period rather than
just when the director leaves. In practice the liability will be calculated on an actuarial basis consistent with the principles in
IAS19. The liability should be recalculated on an annual basis, as for any provision, to take account of changes in directors
and other factors. The liability will be discounted where the effect is material.
(b) Using models where appropriate, what are likely to be the critical success factors (CSFs) as the business
grows and develops? (10 marks)
(b) David even at this early stage needs to identify the critical success factors and related performance indicators that will show
that the concept is turning into a business reality. Many of the success factors will be linked to customer needs and
expectations and therefore where David’s business must excel in order to outperform. the competition. As an innovator one of
the critical success factors will be the time taken to develop and launch the new vase. Being first-to-market will be critical for
success. His ability to generate sales from demanding corporate customers will be a real indicator of that success. David will
need to ensure that he has adequate patent protection for the product and recognise that it will have a product life cycle.
There look to be a number of alternative markets and the ability to customise the product may be a CSF. Greiner indicates
the different stages a growing business goes through and the different problems associated with each stage. One of David’s
key problems will be to decide what type of business he wants to be. From the scenario it looks as if he is aiming to carry
out most of the functions himself and there is a need to decide what he does and what he gets others to do for him. Indeed
the skills he has may be as an innovator rather than as someone who carries out manufacture, distribution, etc. Gift Designs
may develop most quickly as a firm that creates new products and then licences them to larger firms with the skills to
penetrate the many market opportunities that are present. It is important for David to recognise that turning the product
concept into a viable and growing business may result in a business and a business model very different to what he
anticipated. Gift Designs needs to have the flexibility and agility to take advantage of the opportunities that will emerge over
(c) Explain how the introduction of an ERPS could impact on the role of management accountants. (5 marks)
(c) The introduction of ERPS has the potential to have a significant impact on the work of management accountants. The use of
ERPS causes a substantial reduction in the gathering and processing of routine information by management accountants.
Instead of relying on management accountants to provide them with information, managers are able to access the system to
obtain the information they require directly via a suitable electronic access medium.
ERPS integrate separate business functions in one system for the entire organisation and therefore co-ordination is usually
undertaken centrally by information management specialists who have a dual responsibility for the implementation and
operation of the system.
ERPS perform. routine tasks that not so long ago were seen as an essential part of the daily routines of management
accountants, for example perpetual inventory valuation. Therefore if the value of the role of management accountants is not
to be diminished then it is of necessity that management accountants should seek to expand their roles within their
The management accountant will also control and audit the ERPS data input and analysis. Hence the implementation of ERPS
provides the management accountant with an opportunity to change the emphasis of their role from information gathering
and processing to that of the role of advisers and internal consultants to their organisations. This new role will require
management accountants to be involved in interpreting the information generated from the ERPS and to provide business
support for all levels of management within an organisation.
2 The Rubber Group (TRG) manufactures and sells a number of rubber-based products. Its strategic focus is channelled
through profit centres which sell products transferred from production divisions that are operated as cost centres. The
profit centres are the primary value-adding part of the business, where commercial profit centre managers are
responsible for the generation of a contribution margin sufficient to earn the target return of TRG. The target return is
calculated after allowing for the sum of the agreed budgeted cost of production at production divisions, plus the cost
of marketing, selling and distribution costs and central services costs.
The Bettamould Division is part of TRG and manufactures moulded products that it transfers to profit centres at an
agreed cost per tonne. The agreed cost per tonne is set following discussion between management of the Bettamould
Division and senior management of TRG.
The following information relates to the agreed budget for the Bettamould Division for the year ending 30 June 2009:
(1) The budgeted output of moulded products to be transferred to profit centres is 100,000 tonnes. The budgeted
transfer cost has been agreed on a two-part basis as follows:
(i) A standard variable cost of $200 per tonne of moulded products;
(ii) A lump sum annual charge of $50,000,000 in respect of fixed costs, which is charged to profit centres, at
$500 per tonne of moulded products.
(2) Budgeted standard variable costs (as quoted in 1 above) have been set after incorporating each of the following:
(i) A provision in respect of processing losses amounting to 15% of material inputs. Materials are sourced on
a JIT basis from chosen suppliers who have been used for some years. It is felt that the 15% level of losses
is necessary because the ageing of the machinery will lead to a reduction in the efficiency of output levels.
(ii) A provision in respect of machine idle time amounting to 5%. This is incorporated into variable machine
costs. The idle time allowance is held at the 5% level partly through elements of ‘real-time’ maintenance
undertaken by the machine operating teams as part of their job specification.
(3) Quality checks are carried out on a daily basis on 25% of throughput tonnes of moulded products.
(4) All employees and management have contracts based on fixed annual salary agreements. In addition, a bonus
of 5% of salary is payable as long as the budgeted output of 100,000 tonnes has been achieved;
(5) Additional information relating to the points in (2) above (but NOT included in the budget for the year ending
30 June 2009) is as follows:
(i) There is evidence that materials of an equivalent specification could be sourced for 40% of the annual
requirement at the Bettamould Division, from another division within TRG which has spare capacity.
(ii) There is evidence that a move to machine maintenance being outsourced from a specialist company could
help reduce machine idle time and hence allow the possibility of annual output in excess of 100,000 tonnes
of moulded products.
(iii) It is thought that the current level of quality checks (25% of throughput on a daily basis) is vital, although
current evidence shows that some competitor companies are able to achieve consistent acceptable quality
with a quality check level of only 10% of throughput on a daily basis.
The directors of TRG have decided to investigate claims relating to the use of budgeting within organisations which
have featured in recent literature. A summary of relevant points from the literature is contained in the following
‘The use of budgets as part of a ‘performance contract’ between an organisation and its managers may be seen as a
practice that causes management action which might lead to the following problems:
(a) Meeting only the lowest targets
(b) Using more resources than necessary
(c) Making the bonus – whatever it takes
(d) Competing against other divisions, business units and departments
(e) Ensuring that what is in the budget is spent
(f) Providing inaccurate forecasts
(g) Meeting the target, but not beating it
(h) Avoiding risks.’
(a) Explain the nature of any SIX of the eight problems listed above relating to the use of budgeting;
2 Suggested answer content for each of the eight problems contained within the scenario is as follows:
(a) The nature of each of the problems relating to the use of budgeting is as follows:
Meeting only the lowest targets
– infers that once a budget has been negotiated, the budget holder will be satisfied with this level of performance unless
there is good reason to achieve a higher standard.
Using more resources than necessary
– Once the budget has been agreed the focus will be to ensure that the budgeted utilisation of resources has been adhered
to. Indeed the current system does not provide a specific incentive not to exceed the budget level. It may be, however,
that failure to achieve budget targets would reflect badly on factors such as future promotion prospects or job security.
Making the bonus – whatever it takes
– A bonus system is linked to the budget setting and achievement process might lead to actions by employees and
management which they regard as ‘fair game’. This is because they view the maximisation of bonuses as the main
priority in any aspect of budget setting or work output.
Competing against other divisions, business units and departments
– Competition may manifest itself through the attitudes adopted in relation to transfer pricing of goods/services between
divisions, lack of willingness to co-operate on sharing information relating to methods, sources of supply, expertise, etc.
Ensuring that what is in the budget is spent
– Management may see the budget setting process as a competition for resources. Irrespective of the budgeting method
used, there will be a tendency to feel that unless the budget allowance for one year is spent, there will be imposed
reductions in the following year. This will be particularly relevant in the case of fixed cost areas where expenditure is
viewed as discretionary to some extent.
Providing inaccurate forecasts
– This infers that some aspects of budgeting problems such as ‘Gaming’ and ‘misrepresentation’ may be employed by the
budget holder in order to gain some advantage. Gaming may be seen as a deliberate distortion of the measure in order
to secure some strategic advantage. Misrepresentation refers to creative planning in order to suggest that the measure
Meeting the target but not beating it
– There may be a view held by those involved in the achievement of the budget target that there is no incentive for them
to exceed that level of effectiveness.
– There may be a prevailing view by those involved in the achievement of the budget target that wherever possible
strategies incorporated into the achievement of the budget objective should be left unchanged if they have been shown
to be acceptable in the past. Change may be viewed as increasing the level of uncertainty that the proposed budget
target will be achievable.
James died on 22 January 2015. He had made the following gifts during his lifetime:
(1) On 9 October 2007, a cash gift of ￡35,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift.
(2) On 14 May 2013, a cash gift of ￡420,000 to his daughter.
(3) On 2 August 2013, a gift of a property valued at ￡260,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift because it was covered by the nil rate band. By the time of James’ death on 22 January 2015, the property had increased in value to ￡310,000.
On 22 January 2015, James’ estate was valued at ￡870,000. Under the terms of his will, James left his entire estate to his children.
The nil rate band of James’ wife was fully utilised when she died ten years ago.
The nil rate band for the tax year 2007–08 is ￡300,000, and for the tax year 2013–14 it is ￡325,000.
(a) Calculate the inheritance tax which will be payable as a result of James’ death, and state who will be responsible for paying the tax. (6 marks)
(b) Explain why it might have been beneficial for inheritance tax purposes if James had left a portion of his estate to his grandchildren rather than to his children. (2 marks)
(c) Explain why it might be advantageous for inheritance tax purposes for a person to make lifetime gifts even when such gifts are made within seven years of death.
1. Your answer should include a calculation of James’ inheritance tax saving from making the gift of property to the trust on 2 August 2013 rather than retaining the property until his death.
2. You are not expected to consider lifetime exemptions in this part of the question. (2 marks)
(a) James – Inheritance tax arising on death
Lifetime transfers within seven years of death
The personal representatives of James’ estate will be responsible for paying the inheritance tax of ￡348,000.
Working – Available nil rate band
(b) Skipping a generation avoids a further charge to inheritance tax when the children die. Gifts will then only be taxed once before being inherited by the grandchildren, rather than twice.
(c) (1) Even if the donor does not survive for seven years, taper relief will reduce the amount of IHT payable after three years.
(2) The value of potentially exempt transfers and chargeable lifetime transfers are fixed at the time they are made.
(3) James therefore saved inheritance tax of ￡20,000 ((310,000 – 260,000) at 40%) by making the lifetime gift of property.
(ii) Describe the claim of each of the four identified stakeholders. (4 marks)
(ii) Stakeholder claims
Four external stakeholders in the case and their claims are as follows.
The client, i.e. the government of the East Asian country. This stakeholder wants the project completed to budget and
on time. It may also be concerned to minimise negative publicity in respect of the construction of the dam and the
possible negative environmental consequences.
Stop-the-dam, the vocal and well organised pressure group. This stakeholder wants the project stopped completely,
seemingly and slightly paradoxically, for environmental and social footprint reasons.
First Nation, the indigenous people group currently resident on the land behind the dam that would be flooded after its
construction. This stakeholder also wants the project stopped so they can continue to live on and farm the land.
The banks (identified as a single group). These seem happy to lend to the project and will want it to proceed so they
make a return on their loans commensurate with the risk of the loan. They do not want to be publicly identified as being
associated with the Giant Dam Project.
Shareholders. The shareholders have the right to have their investment in the company managed in such a way as to
maximise the value of their shareholding. The shareholders seek projects providing positive NPVs within the normal
constraints of sound risk management.
Tutorial note: only four stakeholders need to be identified. Marks will be given for up to four relevant stakeholders
(ii) State the principal audit procedures to be performed on the consolidation schedule of the Rosie Group.
(ii) Audit procedures on the consolidation schedule of the Rosie Group:
– Agree correct extraction of individual company figures by reference to individual company audited financial
– Cast and cross cast all consolidation schedules.
– Recalculate all consolidation adjustments, including goodwill, elimination of pre acquisition reserves, cancellation
of intercompany balances, fair value adjustments and accounting policy adjustments.
– By reference to prior year audited consolidated accounts, agree accounting policies have been consistently applied.
– Agree brought down figures to prior year audited consolidated accounts and audit working papers (e.g. goodwill
figures for Timber Co and Ben Co, consolidated reserves).
– Agree that any post acquisition profits consolidated for Dylan Co arose since the date of acquisition by reference to
date of control passing per the purchase agreement.
– Reconcile opening and closing group reserves and agree reconciling items to group financial statements.
(c) Without changing the advice you have given in (b), or varying the terms of Luke’s will, explain how Mabel
could further reduce her eventual inheritance tax liability and quantify the tax saving that could be made.
The increase in the retail prices index from April 1984 to April 1998 is 84%.
You should assume that the rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 will continue to apply for the
(c) Further advice
Mabel should consider delaying one of the gifts until after 1 May 2007 such that it is made more than seven years after the
gift to the discretionary trust. Both PETs would then be covered by the nil rate band resulting in a saving of inheritance tax
of ￡6,720 (from (b)).
Mabel should ensure that she uses her inheritance tax annual exemption of ￡3,000 every year by, say, making gifts of ￡1,500
each year to both Bruce and Padma. The effect of this will be to save inheritance tax of ￡1,200 (￡3,000 x 40%) every year.
3 Assume that today’s date is 10 May 2005.
You have recently been approached by Fred Flop. Fred is the managing director and 100% shareholder of Flop
Limited, a UK trading company with one wholly owned subsidiary. Both companies have a 31 March year-end.
Fred informs you that he is experiencing problems in dealing with aspects of his company tax returns. The company
accountant has been unable to keep up to date with matters, and Fred also believes that mistakes have been made
in the past. Fred needs assistance and tells you the following:
Year ended 31 March 2003
The corporation tax return for this period was not submitted until 2 November 2004, and corporation tax of ￡123,500
was paid at the same time. Profits chargeable to corporation tax were stated as ￡704,300.
A formal notice (CT203) requiring the company to file a self-assessment corporation tax return (dated 1 February
2004) had been received by the company on 4 February 2004.
A detailed examination of the accounts and tax computation has revealed the following.
– Computer equipment totalling ￡50,000 had been expensed in the accounts. No adjustment has been made in
the tax computation.
– A provision of ￡10,000 was made for repairs, but there is no evidence of supporting information.
– Legal and professional fees totalling ￡46,500 were allowed in full without any explanation. Fred has
subsequently produced the following analysis:
Analysis of legal & professional fees
Legal fees on a failed attempt to secure a trading loan 15,000
Debt collection agency fees 12,800
Obtaining planning consent for building extension 15,700
Accountant’s fees for preparing accounts 14,000
Legal fees relating to a trade dispute 19,000
– No enquiry has yet been raised by the Inland Revenue.
– Flop Ltd was a large company in terms of the Companies Act definition for the year in question.
– Flop Ltd had taxable profits of ￡595,000 in the previous year.
Year ended 31 March 2004
The corporation tax return has not yet been submitted for this year. The accounts are late and nearing completion,
with only one change still to be made. A notice requiring the company to file a self-assessment corporation tax return
(CT203) dated 27 July 2004 was received on 1 August 2004. No corporation tax has yet been paid.
1 – The computation currently shows profits chargeable to corporation tax of ￡815,000 before accounting
adjustments, and any adjustments for prior years.
– A company owing Flop Ltd ￡50,000 (excluding VAT) has gone into liquidation, and it is unlikely that any of this
money will be paid. The money has been outstanding since 3 September 2003, and the bad debt will need to
be included in the accounts.
1 Fred also believes there are problems in relation to the company’s VAT administration. The VAT return for the quarter
ended 31 March 2005 was submitted on 5 May 2005, and VAT of ￡24,000 was paid at the same time. The previous
return to 31 December 2004 was also submitted late. In addition, no account has been made for the VAT on the bad
debt. The VAT return for 30 June 2005 may also be late. Fred estimates the VAT liability for that quarter to be ￡8,250.
(a) (i) Calculate the revised corporation tax (CT) payable for the accounting periods ending 31 March 2003
and 2004 respectively. Your answer should include an explanation of the adjustments made as a result
of the information which has now come to light. (7 marks)
(ii) State, giving reasons, the due payment date of the corporation tax (CT) and the filing date of the
corporation tax return for each period, and identify any interest and penalties which may have arisen to
date. (8 marks)
(a) Calculation of corporation tax
Year ended 31 March 2003
Corporation tax payable
There are three adjusting items:.
(i) The computers are capital items, as they have an enduring benefit. These need to be added back in the Schedule D
Case I calculation, and capital allowances claimed instead. The company is not small or medium by Companies Act
definitions and therefore no first year allowances are available. Allowances of ￡12,500 (50,000 x 25%) can be claimed,
leaving a TWDV of ￡37,500.
(ii) The provision appears to be general in nature. In addition there is insufficient information to justify the provision and it
should be disallowed until such times as it is released or utilised.
(iii) Costs relating to trading loan relationships are allowable, as are costs relating to the trade (debt collection, trade disputes
and accounting work). Costs relating to capital items (￡5,700) are not allowable so will have to be added back.
Total profit chargeable to corporation tax is therefore ￡704,300 + 50,000 – 12,500 + 10,000 + 5,700 = 757,500. There are two associates, and therefore the 30% tax rate starts at ￡1,500,000/2 = ￡750,000. Corporation tax payable is 30% x￡757,500 = ￡227,250.
Although the rate of tax is 30% and the company ‘large’, quarterly payments will not apply, as the company was not large in the previous year. The due date for payment of tax is therefore nine months and one day after the end of the tax accounting period (31 March 2003) i.e. 1 January 2004.
This is the later of:
– 12 months after the end of the period of account: 31 March 2004
– 3 months after the date of the notice requiring the return 1 May 2004
i.e. 1 May 2004.
2 (a) Explain the term ‘backflush accounting’ and the circumstances in which its use would be appropriate.
(a) Backflush accounting focuses upon output of an organisation and then works backwards when allocating costs between cost
of goods sold and inventories. It can be argued that backflush accounting simplifies costing since it ignores both labour
variances and work-in-progress. Whilst in a perfect just-in-time environment there would be no work-in-progress at all, there
will in practice be a small amount of work-in-progress in the system at any point in time. This amount, however, is likely to
be negligible in quantity and therefore not significant in terms of value. Thus, a backflush accounting system simplifies the
accounting records by avoiding the need to follow the movement of materials and work-in-progress through the manufacturing
process within the organisation.
The backflush accounting system is likely to involve the maintenance of a raw materials and work-in–progress account
together with a finished goods account. The use of standard costs and variances is likely to be incorporated into the
accounting entries. Transfers from raw materials and work-in-progress account to finished goods (or cost of sales) will probably
be made at standard cost. The difference between the actual inputs and the standard charges from the raw materials and
work-in-progress account will be recorded as a residual variance, which will be recorded in the profit and loss account. Thus,
it is essential that standard costs are a good surrogate for actual costs if large variances are to be avoided. Backflush
accounting is ideally suited to a just-in-time philosophy and is employed where the overall cycle time is relatively short and
inventory levels are low. Naturally, management will still be eager to ascertain the cause of any variances that arise from the
inefficient usage of materials, labour and overhead. However investigations are far more likely to be undertaken using nonfinancial
performance indicators as opposed to detailed cost variances.
(b) State the immediate tax implications of the proposed gift of the share portfolio to Avril and identify an
alternative strategy that would achieve Crusoe’s objectives whilst avoiding a possible tax liability in the
future. State any deadline(s) in connection with your proposed strategy. (5 marks)
(b) Gift of the share portfolio to Avril
The gift would be a potentially exempt transfer at market value. No inheritance tax would be due at the time of the gift.
Capital gains tax
The gift would be a disposal by Crusoe deemed to be made at market value for the purposes of capital gains tax. No gain
would arise as the deemed proceeds will equal Crusoe’s base cost of probate value.
There is no stamp duty on a gift of shares for no consideration.
Strategy to avoid a possible tax liability in the future
Crusoe should enter into a deed of variation directing the administrators to transfer the shares to Avril rather than to him. This
will not be regarded as a gift by Crusoe. Instead, provided the deed states that it is intended to be effective for inheritance tax
purposes, it will be as if Noland had left the shares to Avril in a will.
This strategy is more tax efficient than Crusoe gifting the shares to Avril as such a gift would be a potentially exempt transfer
and inheritance tax may be due if Crusoe were to die within seven years.
The deed of variation must be entered into by 1 October 2009, i.e. within two years of the date of Noland’s death.
18 Which of the following statements about accounting ratios and their interpretation are correct?
1 A low-geared company is more able to survive a downturn in profit than a highly-geared company.
2 If a company has a high price earnings ratio, this will often indicate that the market expects its profits to rise.
3 All companies should try to achieve a current ratio (current assets/current liabilities) of 2:1.
A 2 and 3 only
B 1 and 3 only
C 1 and 2 only
D All three statements are correct
(ii) Advise Clifford of the capital gains tax implications of the alternative of selling the Oxford house and
garden by means of two separate disposals as proposed. Calculations are not required for this part of
the question. (3 marks)
(ii) The implications of selling the Oxford house and garden in two separate disposals
The additional sales proceeds would result in an increase in Clifford’s capital gains and consequently his tax liability.
When computing the gain on the sale of the house together with a small part of the garden, the allowable cost would
be a proportion of the original cost. That proportion would be A/A + B where A is the value of the house and garden
that has been sold and B is the value of the part of the garden that has been retained. Principal private residence relief
and taper relief would be available in the same way as that set out in (i) above.
When computing the gain on the sale of the remainder of the garden, the cost would be the original cost of the property
less the amount used in computing the gain on the earlier disposal. Principal private residence relief would not be
available as the land sold is not a dwelling house or part of one.
3 The Chemical Services Group plc (CSG), which operates a divisionalised structure, provides services to industrial and
domestic customers in Swingland, a country whose economic climate is subject to significant variations. There have
been a number of recent changes at board level within CSG and therefore the managing director called a meeting of
the board of directors at which each of four recently appointed directors put forward their view as to what their primary
focus should be. These were as follows:
The research and development director stated that ‘my primary focus is upon ensuring that we continue to develop
the products and services that satisfy the requirements of our existing and potential customers’.
The finance director stated that ‘my primary focus is upon keeping our investors satisfied’.
The human resources director stated that ‘my primary focus is upon ensuring that we take all the steps necessary to
establish and maintain our reputation as a responsible employer’.
The corporate affairs director stated that ‘my primary focus is upon the need to ensure that we are recognised as a
socially responsible organisation’.
(a) Discuss the criteria that should be considered in deciding upon suitable performance measures in respect of
the primary focus of each of the FOUR directors of CSG providing THREE appropriate quantitative measures
for each primary focus.
Note: your answer may include financial or non-financial quantitative measures. (12 marks)
(a) The primary focus of the research and development director
There is a need to measure the ability of CSG to offer up to date services that are sought after by existing and potential
customers. In this regard it would be relatively easy to determine the number of new products/services introduced in previous
periods. The performance of individual innovations should also be assessed. Also the aggregate expenditure on the
development of new services may indicate how CSG has performed with regard to offering up to date, customer focused
The primary focus of the finance director
CSG could use return on capital employed (ROCE), economic value added (EVA) or residual income (RI) as measures of
financial performance. EVA and RI are both superior to return on capital employed (ROCE) in that each method is more likely
to develop goal congruence in terms of acquisition and disposal decisions. It is vital that any performance measure chosen
is consistent with the NPV rule. The use of RI could prove problematic when managers adopt a short term outlook and use
short term performance measures as decisions may not be consistent with the NPV rule. EVA attempts to avoid the problems
associated with understated asset values that arise in the use of ROCE and RI. Current values should be used as opposed to
The primary focus of the human resources director
CSG could use measures such as the rate of staff turnover, the level of absenteeism, training costs per employee and the
number of applications received for each job vacancy. These measures may provide an indication of the extent to which CSG
can be regarded as a socially responsible employer.
These measures should be compared with those of prior periods and targets. Employee attitude surveys may also be
undertaken on a systematic basis in order to assess matters such as the degree of satisfaction with the payment systems that
are in operation, management style. and working conditions.
The primary focus of the corporate affairs director
CSG could use measures such as the amounts spent on the disposal of waste chemicals, the number of complaints received
from clients and members of the public and the total of contributions made to organisations which seek to meet social
objectives, e.g. charities, schools and hospitals.
(c) In August 2004 it was discovered that the inventory at 31 December 2003 had been overstated by $100,000.
Advise the directors on the correct treatment of these matters, stating the relevant accounting standard which
justifies your answer in each case.
NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three matters.
(c) The opening inventory should be included in the current year’s income statement at the corrected figure, and the opening
balance of retained profit reduced by $100,000. The $100,000 reduction will appear in the statement of changes in equity.
(IAS8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors)
1 Oliver Hoppe has been working at Hoopers and Henderson accountancy practice for eighteen months. He feels that
he fits in well, especially with his colleagues and has learnt a lot from them. However, he feels that the rules and
regulations governing everyday activities and time keeping are not clear.
Oliver does not get on well with his line manager, David Morgan. There appears to be a clash of personalities and
reluctance on David Morgan’s part to deal with the icy atmosphere between them after David was asked by one of
the accounting partners to give Oliver a job. For the past three months Oliver has gone to lunch with his fellow workers
and always returned to work with them or before them. In fact they all have returned to work about ten minutes late
on several previous occasions. After the third time, Oliver was called into David Morgan’s office and given an oral
warning about his time keeping.
Oliver was not permitted to argue his case and none of the other staff who returned late were disciplined in this way.
On the next occasion the group was late returning from lunch, David Morgan presented Oliver with a written warning
about his time keeping.
Yesterday, Oliver was five minutes late returning to work. His colleagues returned after him. David Morgan gave Oliver
notice and told him to work until the end of the week and then collect his salary, the necessary paperwork and to
leave the practice.
There is a partner responsible for human resources. Oliver has come to see the partner to discuss the grievance
procedures against David Morgan for his treatment and about what Oliver regards as unfair dismissal.
(a) Describe the six stages of a formal disciplinary procedure that an organisation such as Hoopers and
Henderson should have in place. (12 marks)
A grievance occurs when an individual thinks that he or she has been wrongly treated by colleagues or management, especially
in disciplinary matters. An unresolved feeling of grievance can often lead to further problems for the organisation. The purpose of
procedures is to resolve disciplinary and grievance issues to the satisfaction of all concerned and as early as possible.
If a grievance perceived by an employee is not resolved, then conflict and discontent can arise that will affect the work of the
individual and the organisation. Accountants as managers need to be aware of the need to resolve grievances satisfactorily and
The fundamental basis of organisational disciplinary and grievance procedures is that they must be explicitly clear and accessible
An official and correctly applied disciplinary procedure has six steps which should be followed in the correct order and applied
The Informal Talk.
This is the first step. If the disciplinary matter is of a minor nature and the individual has had until this occasion a good record,
then an informal meeting can often resolve the issue.
Reprimand or Oral Warning.
Here the manager draws the attention of the employee to unsatisfactory behaviour, a repeat of which could lead to formal
Official or Written Warning.
A written warning is a serious matter. It draws the attention of the offending employee to a serious breach of conduct and remains
a recorded document on the employee’s employment history.
Such written documents can be used as evidence if further action is taken, especially dismissal.
Suspension or Lay-off.
If an offence is of a serious nature, if the employee has repeated an earlier offence or if there have been repeated problems then
an employee may be suspended from work for a period of time without pay.
This is a situation where an employee is demoted to a lower salary or position within an organisation. This is a very serious step
to take and can be regarded as a form. of internal dismissal. This course of action can have negative repercussions because the
employee concerned will feel dissatisfied and such feelings can affect their own work and that of others.
This is the ultimate disciplinary measure and should be used only in the most extreme cases. As with demotion, the dismissal of
a staff member can lead to wider dissatisfaction amongst the employees.
The employee may nominate a representative at any stage of the procedure, especially at the more serious stages.
3 The Global Hotel Group (GHG) operates hotels in most of the developed countries throughout the world. The directors
of GHG are committed to a policy of achieving ‘growth’ in terms of geographical coverage and are now considering
building and operating another hotel in Tomorrowland. Tomorrowland is a developing country which is situated 3,000
kilometres from the country in which GHG’s nearest hotel is located.
The managing director of GHG recently attended a seminar on ‘the use of strategic and economic information in
planning organisational performance’.
He has called a board meeting to discuss the strategic and economic factors which should be considered before a
decision is made to build the hotel in Tomorrowland.
(a) Discuss the strategic and economic factors which should be considered before a decision is made to build
the hotel. (14 marks)
(a) Of vital importance is the need for reliable information on which to base the decision regarding the potential investment within
Tomorrowland, since the lack of such information will only serve to increase the risk profile of GHG.
The strategic factors that ought to be considered prior to a decision being made to build and operate a hotel in Tomorrowland
are as follows:
The key notion here is that of the position of GHG relative to its competitors who may have a presence or intend to have a
presence in Tomorrowland. The strategic management accounting system should be capable of coping with changes that can
and will inevitably occur in a dynamic business environment. Hence it is crucial that changes such as, the emergence of a
new competitor, are detected and reflected within strategic plans at the earliest opportunity.
The attitude of the government of Tomorrowland towards foreign organisations requires careful consideration as inevitably the
government will be the country’s largest supplier, employer, customer and investor. The directors need to recognise that the
political environment of Tomorrowland could change dramatically with a change in the national government.
Planning and control of operations within Tomorrowland
Planning and control of operations within Tomorrowland will inevitably be more difficult as GHG might not possess sufficient
knowledge of the business environment within Tomorrowland. Indeed their nearest hotel is at least 3,000 kilometres away.
It is vital the GHG gain such knowledge prior to commencing operations within Tomorrowland in order to avoid undue risks.
The sociological–cultural constraints
While it is generally recognised that there is a growing acceptability of international brands this might not be the case with
regard to Tomorrowland. The attitude towards work, managers (especially foreign nationals) and capitalist organisations could
severely impact on the degree of success achieved within Tomorrowland. In this respect it is vital that consideration is given
to recognition of the relationships in economic life including demand, price, wages, training, and rates of labour turnover and
A primary consideration relates to whether or not to use local labour in the construction of the hotel. The perceived
‘remoteness’ of Tomorrowland might make it an unattractive proposition for current employees of GHG, thereby presenting the
directors of GHG with a significant problem.
Consideration needs to be given to the communication problems that arise between different countries and in this respect
Tomorrowland is probably no exception. Language barriers will inevitably exist and this needs to be addressed at the earliest
opportunity to minimise any risks to GHG.
The economic factors that ought to be considered prior to a decision being made to build and operate a hotel in Tomorrowland
are as follows:
The hotel should be designed having given due consideration to the prevailing climatic conditions within Tomorrowland which
might necessitate the use of specific types of building materials. It might well be the case that such building materials are not
available locally, or are in such scarce supply in which case local supply would prove to be uneconomic.
Another consideration relates to local labour being available and reliable in terms of its quality.
The stability of the currency within Tomorrowland assumes critical significance because profit repatriation is problematic in
situations where those profits are made in an unstable currency or one that is likely to depreciate against the home currency,
thereby precipitating sizeable losses on exchange. Any currency restrictions need to be given careful consideration. For
example, it might be the case that hotel guests would be prohibited from paying accommodation bills in a foreign currency
which would be problematic if the local currency was weak.
All local and International legislation should be given careful consideration. It might be the case that local legislation via
various licences or legal requirements favour local hotels.
The potential demand within Tomorrowland will be linked to the local economy. It is a developing economy and this may
bode well for GHG. However, again the need for reliable information about the size of the market, the extent of competition,
likely future trends etc is of fundamental importance.
An important decision lies in the availability and associated costs of financing in Tomorrowland which might not have mature
enough capital markets due to its developmental state. Hence GHG might need to finance using alternative currencies.
Note: Other relevant comments would be acceptable.
(d) Prepare the statement for Mr Markovnikoff to read out at the AGM. The statement you construct should
contain the following.
(i) A definition and brief explanation of ‘sustainable development’; (3 marks)
(d) Chairman’s statement at AGM
Thank you for coming to the annual general meeting of Rowlands & Mendeleev. I would like to make a statement in response
to the concerns that a number of our investors have made in respect to our appointment as the principal contractor for the
prestigious and internationally important Giant Dam Project. We are very pleased and honoured to have won the contract but
as several have observed, this does leave us in a position of having a number of issues and risks to manage.
As a project with obvious environmental implications, the board and I wish to reassure investors that we are aware of these
implications and have taken them into account in our overall assessment of risks associated with the project.
(i) A definition of ‘sustainable development’
One investor asked if we could explain the sustainability issues and I begin with addressing that issue. According to the
well-established Brundtland definition, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
This definition has implications for energy, land use, natural resources and waste emissions. In a sustainable
development, all of these should be consumed or produced at the same rate they can be renewed or absorbed so as to
prevent leaving future generations with an unwanted legacy of today’s economic activity. We believe that our involvement
in the Giant Dam Project has implications for environmental sustainability and it is to these matters that I now turn.
Tutorial note: other relevant definitions of sustainability will be equally acceptable.
Which of the following statements relating to internal and external auditors is correct?
A.Internal auditors are required to be members of a professional body
B.Internal auditors’ scope of work should be determined by those charged with governance
C.External auditors report to those charged with governance
D.Internal auditors can never be independent of the company
A is incorrect as internal auditors are not required to be members of any professional body. C is incorrect as external auditors report to shareholders rather than those charged with governance. D is incorrect as internal auditors can be independent of the company, if, for example, the internal audit function has been outsourced.
In January 2008 Arti entered in a contractual agreement with Bee Ltd to write a study manual for an international accountancy body’s award. The manual was to cover the period from September 2008 till June 2009, and it was a term of the contract that the text be supplied by 30 June 2008 so that it could be printed in time for September. By 30 May, Arti had not yet started on the text and indeed he had written to Bee Ltd stating that he was too busy to write the text.
Bee Ltd was extremely perturbed by the news, especially as it had acquired the contract to supply all of the
accountancy body’s study manuals and had already incurred extensive preliminary expenses in relation to the publication of the new manual.
In the context of the law of contract, advise Bee Ltd whether they can take any action against Arti.
The essential issues to be disentangled from the problem scenario relate to breach of contract and the remedies available for such breach.
There seems to be no doubt that there is a contractual agreement between Arti and Bee Ltd. Normally breach of a contract occurs where one of the parties to the agreement fails to comply, either completely or satisfactorily, with their obligations under it. However, such a definition does not appear to apply in this case as the time has not yet come when Arti has to produce the text. He has merely indicated that he has no intention of doing so. This is an example of the operation of the doctrine of anticipatory breach.
This arises precisely where one party, prior to the actual due date of performance, demonstrates an intention not to perform. their contractual obligations. The intention not to fulfil the contract can be either express or implied.
Express anticipatory breach occurs where a party actually states that they will not perform. their contractual obligations (Hochster v De La Tour (1853)). Implied anticipatory breach occurs where a party carries out some act which makes performance impossible
Omnium Enterprises v Sutherland (1919)).
When anticipatory breach takes place the innocent party can sue for damages immediately on receipt of the notification of the other party’s intention to repudiate the contract, without waiting for the actual contractual date of performance as in Hochster v De La Tour. Alternatively, they can wait until the actual time for performance before taking action. In the latter instance, they are entitled to make preparations for performance, and claim the agreed contract price (White and Carter (Councils) v McGregor (1961)).
It would appear that Arti’s action is clearly an instance of express anticipatory breach and that Bee Ltd has the right either to accept the repudiation immediately or affirm the contract and take action against Arti at the time for performance (Vitol SA v Norelf Ltd (1996)). In any event Arti is bound to complete his contractual promise or suffer the consequences of his breach of contract.
Remedies for breach of contract
(i) Specific performance It will sometimes suit a party to break their contractual obligations, even if they have to pay damages. In such circumstances the court can make an order for specific performance to require the party in breach to complete their part of the contract. However, as specific performance is not available in respect of contracts of employment or personal service Arti cannot be legally required to write the book for Bee Ltd (Ryan v Mutual Tontine Westminster Chambers Association (1893)). This means that the only remedy against Arti lies in the award of damages.
(ii) Damages A breach of contract will result in the innocent party being able to sue for damages.
Bee Ltd, therefore, can sue Bob for damages, but the important issue relates to the extent of such damages.
The estimation of what damages are to be paid by a party in breach of contract can be divided into two parts: remoteness and measure.
Remoteness of damage
The rule in Hadley v Baxendale (1845) states that damages will only be awarded in respect of losses which arise naturally, or which both parties may reasonably be supposed to have contemplated when the contract was made, as a probable result of its breach.
The effect of the first part of the rule in Hadley v Baxendale is that the party in breach is deemed to expect the normal consequences of the breach, whether they actually expected them or not. Under the second part of the rule, however, the party in breach can only be held liable for abnormal consequences where they have actual knowledge that the abnormal consequences might follow (Victoria Laundry Ltd v Newham Industries Ltd (1949)).
Measure of damages
Damages in contract are intended to compensate an injured party for any financial loss sustained as a consequence of another party’s breach. The object is not to punish the party in breach, so the amount of damages awarded can never be greater than the actual loss suffered. The aim is to put the injured party in the same position they would have been in had the contract been properly performed. In order to achieve this end the claimant is placed under a duty to mitigate losses. This means that the injured party has to take all reasonable steps to minimise their loss (Payzu v Saunders (1919)). Although such a duty did not appear to apply in relation to anticipatory breach as decided in White and Carter (Councils) v McGregor (1961)(above).
Applying these rules to the fact situation in the problem it is evident that as Arti has effected an anticipatory breach of his contract with Bee Ltd he will be liable to them for damages suffered as a consequence, if indeed they suffer damage as a result of his breach. As Bee Ltd will be under a duty to mitigate their losses, they will have to commit their best endeavours to find someone else to produce the required text on time. If they can do so at no further cost then they would suffer no loss, but any additional costs in producing the text will have to be borne by Arti.
However, if Bee Ltd is unable to produce the required text on time the situation becomes more complicated.
(i) As regards the profits from the contract to supply the accountancy body with all its text, the issue would be as to whether this was normal profit or amounted to an unexpected gain, as it was not part of Bee Ltd’s normal market when the contract was signed. If Victoria Laundry Ltd v Newham Industries Ltd were to be applied it is unlikely that Bee Ltd would be able to claim that loss of profit from Arti. However, it is equally plausible that the contract was an ordinary commercial one and that Arti would have to recompense Bee Ltd for any losses suffered from its failure to complete contractual performance.
(ii) As for the extensive preliminary expenses Arti would certainly be liable for them, as long as they were in the ordinary course of Bee Ltd’s business and were not excessive (Anglia Television v Reed (1972)).
2 The draft financial statements of Choctaw, a limited liability company, for the year ended 31 December 2004 showed
a profit of $86,400. The trial balance did not balance, and a suspense account with a credit balance of $3,310 was
included in the balance sheet.
In subsequent checking the following errors were found:
(a) Depreciation of motor vehicles at 25 per cent was calculated for the year ended 31 December 2004 on the
reducing balance basis, and should have been calculated on the straight-line basis at 25 per cent.
Cost of motor vehicles $120,000, net book value at 1 January 2004, $88,000
(b) Rent received from subletting part of the office accommodation $1,200 had been put into the petty cash box.
No receivable balance had been recognised when the rent fell due and no entries had been made in the petty
cash book or elsewhere for it. The petty cash float in the trial balance is the amount according to the records,
which is $1,200 less than the actual balance in the box.
(c) Bad debts totalling $8,400 are to be written off.
(d) The opening accrual on the motor repairs account of $3,400, representing repair bills due but not paid at
31 December 2003, had not been brought down at 1 January 2004.
(e) The cash discount totals for December 2004 had not been posted to the discount accounts in the nominal ledger.
The figures were:
Discount allowed 380
Discount received 290
After the necessary entries, the suspense account balanced.
Prepare journal entries, with narratives, to correct the errors found, and prepare a statement showing the
necessary adjustments to the profit.
(ii) Advise Andrew of the tax implications arising from the disposal of the 7% Government Stock, clearly
identifying the tax year in which any liability will arise and how it will be paid. (3 marks)
(ii) Government stock is an exempt asset for the purposes of capital gains tax, however, as Andrew’s holding has a nominal
value in excess of ￡5,000, a charge to income tax will arise under the accrued income scheme. This charge to income
tax will arise in 2005/06, being the tax year in which the next interest payment following disposal falls due (20 April
2005) and it will relate to the income accrued for the period 21 October 2004 to 14 March 2005 of ￡279 (145/182
x ￡350). As interest on Government Stock is paid gross (unless the holder applies to receive it net), the tax due of ￡112
(￡279 x 40%) will be collected via the self-assessment system and as the interest was an ongoing source of income
will be included within Andrew’s half yearly payments on account payable on 31 January and 31 July 2006.
(b) Using the unit cost information available and your calculations in (a), prepare a financial analysis of the
decision strategy which TOC may implement with regard to the manufacture of each product. (6 marks)