2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节

发布时间:2021-09-20
2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节

2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第1节


(b) (i) Explain the matters you should consider to determine whether capitalised development costs are

appropriately recognised; and (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Materiality
The net book value of capitalised development costs represent 7% of total assets in 2007 (2006 – 7·7%), and is
therefore material. The net book value has increased by 13%, a significant trend.
The costs capitalised during the year amount to $750,000. If it was found that the development cost had been
inappropriately capitalised, the cost should instead have been expensed. This would reduce profit before tax by
$750,000, representing 42% of the year’s profit. This is highly material. It is therefore essential to gather sufficient
evidence to support the assertion that development costs should be recognised as an asset.
In 2007, $750,000 capitalised development costs have been incurred, when added to $160,000 research costs
expensed, total research and development costs are $910,000 which represents 20·2% of total revenue, again
indicating a high level of materiality for this class of transaction.
Relevant accounting standard
Development costs should only be capitalised as an intangible asset if the recognition criteria of IAS 38 Intangible Assets
have been demonstrated in full:
– Intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it
– Technical feasibility and ability to use or sell
– Ability to generate future economic benefit
– Availability of technical, financial and other resources to complete
– Ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset.
Research costs must be expensed, as should development costs which do not comply with the above criteria. The
auditors must consider how Sci-Tech Co differentiates between research and development costs.
There is risk that not all of the criteria have been demonstrated, especially due to the subjective nature of the
development itself:
– Pharmaceutical development is highly regulated. If the government does not license the product then the product
cannot be sold, and economic benefits will therefore not be received.
– Market research should justify the commercial viability of the product. The launch of a rival product to Flortex
means that market share is likely to be much lower than anticipated, and the ability to sell Flortex is reduced. This
could mean that Flortex will not generate an overall economic benefit if future sales will not recover the research
and development costs already suffered, and yet to be suffered, prior to launch. The existence of the rival product
could indicate that Flortex is no longer commercially viable, in which case the capitalised development costs
relating to Flortex should be immediately expensed.
– The funding on which development is dependent may be withdrawn, indicating that there are not adequate
resources to complete the development of the products. Sci-Tech has failed to meet one of its required key
performance indicators (KPI) in the year ended 30 November 2007, as products valued at 0·8% revenue have
been donated to charity, whereas the required KPI is 1% revenue.
Given that there is currently a breach of the target KPIs, this is likely to result in funding equivalent to 25% of
research and development expenditure being withdrawn. If Sci-Tech Co is unable to source alternative means of
finance, then it would seem that adequate resources may not be available to complete the development of new
products.


On 1 April 2009 Pandar purchased 80% of the equity shares in Salva. The acquisition was through a share exchange of three shares in Pandar for every five shares in Salva. The market prices of Pandar’s and Salva’s shares at 1 April

2009 were $6 per share and $3.20 respectively.

On the same date Pandar acquired 40% of the equity shares in Ambra paying $2 per share.

The summarised income statements for the three companies for the year ended 30 September 2009 are:

The following information is relevant:

(i) The fair values of the net assets of Salva at the date of acquisition were equal to their carrying amounts with the exception of an item of plant which had a carrying amount of $12 million and a fair value of $17 million. This plant had a remaining life of five years (straight-line depreciation) at the date of acquisition of Salva. All depreciation is charged to cost of sales.

In addition Salva owns the registration of a popular internet domain name. The registration, which had a

negligible cost, has a five year remaining life (at the date of acquisition); however, it is renewable indefinitely at a nominal cost. At the date of acquisition the domain name was valued by a specialist company at $20 million.

The fair values of the plant and the domain name have not been reflected in Salva’s financial statements.

No fair value adjustments were required on the acquisition of the investment in Ambra.

(ii) Immediately after its acquisition of Salva, Pandar invested $50 million in an 8% loan note from Salva. All interest accruing to 30 September 2009 had been accounted for by both companies. Salva also has other loans in issue at 30 September 2009.

(iii) Pandar has credited the whole of the dividend it received from Salva to investment income.

(iv) After the acquisition, Pandar sold goods to Salva for $15 million on which Pandar made a gross profit of 20%. Salva had one third of these goods still in its inventory at 30 September 2009. There are no intra-group current account balances at 30 September 2009.

(v) The non-controlling interest in Salva is to be valued at its (full) fair value at the date of acquisition. For this

purpose Salva’s share price at that date can be taken to be indicative of the fair value of the shareholding of the non-controlling interest.

(vi) The goodwill of Salva has not suffered any impairment; however, due to its losses, the value of Pandar’s

investment in Ambra has been impaired by $3 million at 30 September 2009.

(vii) All items in the above income statements are deemed to accrue evenly over the year unless otherwise indicated.

Required:

(a) (i) Calculate the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Salva at 1 April 2009; (6 marks)

(ii) Calculate the carrying amount of the investment in Ambra to be included within the consolidated

statement of financial position as at 30 September 2009. (3 marks)

(b) Prepare the consolidated income statement for the Pandar Group for the year ended 30 September 2009.(16 marks)

正确答案:


(b) Calculate the taxable benefit in 2005/06 if Jan were to use the accommodation offered by his employer. You

may assume that the rules for calculating benefits are the same as in 2004/05. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Benefit – accommodation
If Jan accepts the offer, he will occupy the building for a period of eight months in the tax year 2005/06 (from 6 August 2005
– 5 April 2006). The benefit will last for six months.
The taxable benefit is the higher of:
(i) The rent borne by the company                                                      = 600 x 6 = 3,600
(ii) The annual (rateable) value                                                            = 6,000 x 6/12 = 3,000
i.e. £3,600.
In addition, as the property costs in excess of £75,000, an additional benefit arises. The excess is subject to the official rate
of interest, and is calculated as follows:
(155,000 – 75,000) x 5% = 4,000 x 6/12                                         = 2,000
Total taxable benefit is £3,600 + £2,000 = £5,600.
Tutorial note: strictly speaking the additional charge does not apply if the expensive property is rented rather than owned –
therefore the above answer, whilst the most commonly given is not technically correct. One mark was awarded if the
additional benefit calculation was performed as shown above and an alternative one mark was awarded if the additional
benefit was not calculated for the correct technical reason.


Big Cheese Chairs (BCC) manufactures and sells executive leather chairs. They are considering a new design of massaging chair to launch into the competitive market in which they operate.

They have carried out an investigation in the market and using a target costing system have targeted a competitive selling price of $120 for the chair. BCC wants a margin on selling price of 20% (ignoring any overheads).

The frame. and massage mechanism will be bought in for $51 per chair and BCC will upholster it in leather and assemble it ready for despatch.

Leather costs $10 per metre and two metres are needed for a complete chair although 20% of all leather is wasted in the upholstery process.

The upholstery and assembly process will be subject to a learning effect as the workers get used to the new design.

BCC estimates that the first chair will take two hours to prepare but this will be subject to a learning rate (LR) of 95%.

The learning improvement will stop once 128 chairs have been made and the time for the 128th chair will be the time for all subsequent chairs. The cost of labour is $15 per hour.

The learning formula is shown on the formula sheet and at the 95% learning rate the value of b is -0·074000581.

Required:

(a) Calculate the average cost for the first 128 chairs made and identify any cost gap that may be present at

that stage. (8 marks)

(b) Assuming that a cost gap for the chair exists suggest four ways in which it could be closed. (6 marks)

The production manager denies any claims that a cost gap exists and has stated that the cost of the 128th chair will be low enough to yield the required margin.

(c) Calculate the cost of the 128th chair made and state whether the target cost is being achieved on the 128th chair. (6 marks)

正确答案:

(W1)
The cost of the labour can be calculated using learning curve principles. The formula can be used or a tabular approach would
also give the average cost of 128 chairs. Both methods are acceptable and shown here.

(b) To reduce the cost gap various methods are possible (only four are needed for full marks)
– Re-design the chair to remove unnecessary features and hence cost
– Negotiate with the frame. supplier for a better cost. This may be easier as the volume of sales improve as suppliers often
are willing to give discounts for bulk buying. Alternatively a different frame. supplier could be found that offers a better
price. Care would be needed here to maintain the required quality
– Leather can be bought from different suppliers or at a better price also. Reducing the level of waste would save on cost.
Even a small reduction in waste rates would remove much of the cost gap that exists
– Improve the rate of learning by better training and supervision
– Employ cheaper labour by reducing the skill level expected. Care would also be needed here not to sacrifice quality or
push up waste rates.
(c) The cost of the 128th chair will be:


(b) State the immediate tax implications of the proposed gift of the share portfolio to Avril and identify an

alternative strategy that would achieve Crusoe’s objectives whilst avoiding a possible tax liability in the

future. State any deadline(s) in connection with your proposed strategy. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Gift of the share portfolio to Avril
Inheritance tax
The gift would be a potentially exempt transfer at market value. No inheritance tax would be due at the time of the gift.
Capital gains tax
The gift would be a disposal by Crusoe deemed to be made at market value for the purposes of capital gains tax. No gain
would arise as the deemed proceeds will equal Crusoe’s base cost of probate value.
Stamp duty
There is no stamp duty on a gift of shares for no consideration.
Strategy to avoid a possible tax liability in the future
Crusoe should enter into a deed of variation directing the administrators to transfer the shares to Avril rather than to him. This
will not be regarded as a gift by Crusoe. Instead, provided the deed states that it is intended to be effective for inheritance tax
purposes, it will be as if Noland had left the shares to Avril in a will.
This strategy is more tax efficient than Crusoe gifting the shares to Avril as such a gift would be a potentially exempt transfer
and inheritance tax may be due if Crusoe were to die within seven years.
The deed of variation must be entered into by 1 October 2009, i.e. within two years of the date of Noland’s death.


(b) Explain the need for a first time group auditor to analyse the group structure. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Need to analyse the group structure
A certain amount of analysis of the group structure will be undertaken before an auditor accepts the role of group auditor,
particularly if the auditor is not directly responsible for the whole group.
An analysis of the group structure is necessary to:
■ ensure that particular attention is given to the more unusual aspects of corporate structures (e.g. partnership
arrangements that may be a joint venture, components in tax havens, shell companies and horizontal groups);
■ arrange access to information relating to all ‘significant’ components (i.e. those representing 20% or more of group
assets, liabilities, cash flows, profit or revenue), on a timely basis;
■ identify the applicable financial reporting framework for each component and any local statutory reporting requirements;
■ plan work to deal with different accounting frameworks/policies applied throughout the group and differences between
International Auditing Standards (ISAs) and national standards;
■ integrate the group audit process effectively with local statutory audit requirements;
■ identify related parties and effectively audit the completeness of disclosures in the group accounts in accordance with
IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures.
Any doubts about the group structure will need to be clarified against publicly available information as soon as possible to
ensure an effective audit of the relevant components (i.e. subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures). The auditor can then
plan the level of assurance required on each component well in advance of the year end.
Having established thoroughly the group structure from the outset the auditor will then need only to update the structure for
changes year-on-year.


3 Palm plc recently acquired 100% of the ordinary share capital of Nikau Ltd from Facet Ltd. Palm plc intends to use

Nikau Ltd to develop a new product range, under the name ‘Project Sabal’. Nikau Ltd owns shares in a non-UK

resident company, Date Inc.

The following information has been extracted from client files and from a meeting with the Finance Director of Palm

plc.

Palm plc:

– Has more than 40 wholly owned subsidiaries such that all group companies pay corporation tax at 30%.

– All group companies prepare accounts to 31 March.

– Acquired Nikau Ltd on 1 November 2007 from Facet Ltd, an unrelated company.

Nikau Ltd:

– UK resident company that manufactures domestic electronic appliances for sale in the European Union (EU).

– Large enterprise for the purposes of the enhanced relief available for research and development expenditure.

– Trading losses brought forward as at 1 April 2007 of £195,700.

– Budgeted taxable trading profit of £360,000 for the year ending 31 March 2008 before taking account of ‘Project

Sabal’.

– Dividend income of £38,200 will be received in the year ending 31 March 2008 in respect of the shares in Date

Inc.

‘Project Sabal’:

– Development of a range of electronic appliances, for sale in North America.

– Project Sabal will represent a significant advance in the technology of domestic appliances.

– Nikau Ltd will spend £70,000 on staffing costs and consumables researching and developing the necessary

technology between now and 31 March 2008. Further costs will be incurred in the following year.

– Sales to North America will commence in 2009 and are expected to generate significant profits from that year.

Shares in Date Inc:

– Nikau Ltd owns 35% of the ordinary share capital of Date Inc.

– The shares were purchased from Facet Ltd on 1 June 2003 for their market value of £338,000.

– The sale was a no gain, no loss transfer for the purposes of corporation tax.

– Facet Ltd purchased the shares in Date Inc on 1 March 1994 for £137,000.

Date Inc:

– A controlled foreign company resident in the country of Palladia.

– Annual chargeable profits arising out of property investment activities are approximately £120,000, of which

approximately £115,000 is distributed to its shareholders each year.

The tax system in Palladia:

– No taxes on income or capital profits.

– 4% withholding tax on dividends paid to shareholders resident outside Palladia.

Required:

(a) Prepare detailed explanatory notes, including relevant supporting calculations, on the effect of the following

issues on the amount of corporation tax payable by Nikau Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2008.

(i) The costs of developing ‘Project Sabal’ and the significant commercial changes to the company’s

activities arising out of its implementation. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Nikau Ltd – Effect on corporation tax payable for the year ending 31 March 2008
(i) Project Sabal
Research and development expenditure
The expenditure incurred in respect of research and development will give rise to an enhanced deduction for the
purposes of computing the taxable trading profits of Nikau Ltd. The enhanced deduction is 125% of the qualifying
expenditure as Nikau Ltd is a large enterprise for this purpose.
The expenditure will reduce the profits chargeable to corporation tax of Nikau Ltd by £87,500 (£70,000 x 1·25) and
its corporation tax liability by £26,250 (£87,500 x 30%).
The budgeted expenditure will qualify for the enhanced deduction because it appears to satisfy the following conditions.
– It is likely to qualify as research and development expenditure within generally accepted accounting principles as
it will result in new technical knowledge and the production of a substantially improved device for use in the
industry.
– It exceeds £10,000 in Nikau Ltd’s accounting period.
– It relates to staff costs, consumable items or other qualifying expenditure as opposed to capital items.
– It will result in further trading activities for Nikau Ltd.
Use of brought forward trading losses
The development of products for the North American market is likely to represent a major change in the nature and
conduct of the trade of Nikau Ltd. This is because the company is developing new products and intends to sell them in
a new market. It is a major change as sales to North America are expected to generate significant additional profits.
Because this change will occur within three years of the change in the ownership of Nikau Ltd on 1 November 2007,
any trading losses arising prior to that date cannot be carried forward beyond that date.
Accordingly, the trading losses brought forward may only be offset against £158,958 ((£360,000 – £87,500) x 7/12)
of the company’s trading profits for the year. The remainder of the trading losses £36,742 (£195,700 – £158,958) will
be lost resulting in lost tax relief of £11,023 (£36,742 x 30%).
Tutorial note
The profits for the year ending 31 March 2008 will be apportioned to the periods pre and post 1 November 2007 on
either a time basis or some other basis that is just and reasonable.


12 At 1 July 2004 a company had prepaid insurance of $8,200. On 1 January 2005 the company paid $38,000 for

insurance for the year to 30 September 2005.

What figures should appear for insurance in the company’s financial statements for the year ended 30 June

2005?

Income statement Balance sheet

A $27,200 Prepayment $19,000

B $39,300 Prepayment $9,500

C $36,700 Prepayment $9,500

D $55,700 Prepayment $9,500

正确答案:C


(b) Write a letter to Joanne setting out the value added tax (VAT) registration requirements and advising on

whether or not she should or could register for VAT and if registered if she could recover the VAT suffered on

the consultancy fees and computer purchased in October 2005. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(b) [Joanne’s address] [Firm’s address]
Dear Joanne 5 February 2006
I am writing to you in order to set out the value added tax (VAT) issues you face on registering your trade, together with some
other aspects of VAT that are relevant to you.
Registration
VAT registration is compulsory once taxable supplies exceed £58,000. This turnover figure is based on the value of your
cumulative taxable supplies in the previous 12 months. You have an obligation to inform. Customs within 30 days of the end
of the month in which the annual limit is exceeded. Registration will become effective on the first day of the following month.
VAT registration is also required if there are reasonable grounds for believing that the taxable supplies in the following 30 days
will exceed £58,000. In such cases, notification is required by the end of that 30 day period with registration being effective
from the start of that period.
Based on your estimates of taxable supplies, you will exceed the annual limit in October 2006 when your cumulative turnover
will be £62,000. You will therefore have to inform. Customs by the end of November. Your registration will be effective as of
1 December 2006.
You also have the option of voluntarily registering prior to then in which case you will normally become registered from the
date you applied. This is useful where your sales are to VAT registered customers for whom the extra VAT would not be a cost.
You would then be able to recover VAT on your attributable costs. However, you will have to comply with the VAT
administrative requirements.
Recovery of pre-registration VAT
It is possible to claim the recovery of VAT incurred prior to registering for VAT. There are some conditions, however. The costs
of the goods or services must have been incurred for the purpose of the business and there are time limits. You have three
years from the effective date of registration to recover the VAT on fixed assets (such as your computer) but only six months in
the case of purchased services (such as the consultancy fees).
As a result, I would recommend that you apply for voluntary registration as soon as possible, as registering after 1 April 2006
will mean that you will be unable to reclaim the VAT on your consultancy fees.
I hope the above information is useful to you.
Yours sincerely,
A. Consultant.


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第2节


(b) Paying a dividend of 10c per share (1 mark)

正确答案:
(b) Paying a dividend of 10c per share.
There are insufficient retained earnings to pay a dividend of more than 5c per share.


(e) Briefly provide five reasons to the management of Bailey’s why financial rewards could be considered to improve motivation. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(e) There are issues at Bailey’s as a consequence of poor pay. Although non-financial motivation has an important role to play in encouraging commitment, the fact remains that financial rewards act as a strong motivating factor, especially in what has been a low pay business. Financial rewards are all encompassing and apply to all employees at all levels, are universally applicable, able to satisfy all types of need and simple to apply and understand. At Bailey’s, financial rewards have a greater effect because they can provide recognition and prestige if pay is improved, are seen as the most important hygiene factor(especially in a business with a history of low pay and low morale) and are a measure of achievement against goals, especially if some form. of bonus or performance related pay is introduced by the new management at Bailey’s. In addition, financial rewards are a basis for satisfaction and are often used as a form. of professional or social comparison outside the organisation.


(e) Briefly discuss FOUR initiatives that management might consider in order to further enhance profitability.

(4 marks)

正确答案:
(e) In order to enhance profitability management might take the following actions:
(i) Increase the maximum capacity of the circus.
(ii) Undertake a detailed review of operating costs which are budgeted at £239,200,000. Such a review might identify nonvalue
added costs which may be eliminated thereby increasing profitability.
(iii) Enter into a strategic arrangement with large hotels and travel agencies to offer travel and accommodation inclusive
arrangements for visitors to Cinola Island. This might help to increase the number of visitors to the zoo thereby increasing
profits.
(iv) Change the price structure and entitlement of tickets so that purchasers might visit Cinola Island on two separate days
in order to attend the zoo and circus. Additional revenues would arise as a consequence of the increased number of
visitors to the zoo, thereby increasing profitability.
(v) Hold prize draws for free tickets to the zoo for families on an ‘all-inclusive basis’, including restaurants, photographs,
souvenirs etc.
N.B. Only four initiatives were required to be discussed.


(iii) the warranty provision. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) Warranty provision
■ Agree the principal assumptions in management’s estimate of liabilities under warranties to the terms of warranty
as set out in contracts for sale of vehicle. For example:
– the period for which warranties are given;
– whether for parts replacement only or parts and labour;
– exclusion clauses, perhaps for vehicles sold into a particular market, or used in a specified industry (e.g. filmmaking).
■ Agree the reasonableness of management’s assumptions in the calculation of the provision. For example, the
proportion of vehicles for which claims are made within three months, three to six months, six to nine months, etc.
■ Substantiate the economic reality of the basis of management’s calculations. For example:
– agree the number of vehicles sold each month to a summary sales report;
– agree the calculation of average cost of a repair under warranty to job records;
– test costs of repair on a sample basis (e.g. parts replaced to price lists and labour charges to hours worked
(per job records) and charge-out rates).
■ Consider the reasonableness of management’s estimate by comparing:
– the actual cost of after-date repairs (say for three months) against the appropriate proportion of the provision
made;
– current year provision per vehicle sold against prior provision per vehicle sold.
■ Assess management’s ability to make reliable estimates in this area by comparing last year’s provision with the
actual repairs under warranty costs incurred during the year in respect of sales made in previous years.
Tutorial note: The basis of management’s estimate may tend to overstate or understate the provision required
and should be revised accordingly.
■ Agree the extent to which the provision takes account of (has been reduced by) any recourse to suppliers (e.g. in
respect of faulty parts). For example:
– by reviewing terms of purchases from major suppliers;
– by examining records of replacement parts received free of charge.


(iv) The stamp duty and/or stamp duty land tax payable by the Saturn Ltd group; (2 marks)

Additional marks will be awarded for the appropriateness of the format and presentation of the memorandum

and the effectiveness with which the information is communicated. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(iv) Stamp duty and stamp duty land tax
– The purchase of Tethys Ltd will give rise to a liability to ad valorem stamp duty of £1,175 (£235,000 x 0·5%).
The stamp duty must be paid by Saturn Ltd within 30 days of the share transfer in order to avoid interest being
charged. It is not an allowable expense for the purposes of corporation tax.


(b) (i) Discuss the main factors that should be taken into account when determining how to treat gains and

losses arising on tangible non-current assets in a single statement of financial performance. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Currently there are many rules on how gains and losses on tangible non current assets should be reported and these
have traditionally varied from country to country. The main issues revolve around the reporting of depreciation,
disposal/revaluation gains and losses, and impairment losses. The reporting of such elements should take into account
whether the tangible non current assets have been revalued or held at historical cost. The problem facing standard
setters is where to report such gains and losses.The question is whether they should be reported as part of operating
activities or as ‘other gains and losses’.
Holding gains arising on the sale of tangible non current assets could be reported separately from operating results so
that the latter is not obscured by an asset realisation that reflects more a change in market prices than any increase in
the operating activity of the entity. Other changes in the carrying amounts of tangible non current assets will be reported
as part of the operating results. For example, the depreciation charge tries to reflect the consumption of the asset by the
entity and as such is not a holding loss. There may be cases where the depreciation charge does not reflect the
consumption of economic benefits. For example, the pattern and rate of depreciation could have been misjudged
because the asset’s useful life has been assessed incorrectly. In this case, when an asset is sold any excess or shortfall
of depreciation may need to be dealt with in the operating result.
Impairment is another factor to consider in reporting gains and losses on tangible non current assets. Impairment is
effectively accelerated depreciation. Impairment arises when the carrying amount of the asset is above its recoverable
amount. It follows therefore that any impairment loss should be reported as part of the operating result. Any losses on
disposal, to the extent that they represent impairment, could therefore be reported as part of the operating results. Any
losses which represent holding losses could be reported in ‘other gains and losses’. The difficulty will be differentiating
between holding losses and impairment losses. There will have to be clear and concise definitions of these terms or it
could lead to abuse by companies in their quest to maximise operating profits.
A distinction should be made between gains and losses arising on tangible non current assets as a result of revaluations
and those arising on disposal. The nature of the gain or loss is essentially the same although the timing and certainty
of the gain/loss is different. Therefore revaluation gains/losses may be reported in the ‘other gains and losses’ section.
Where an asset has been revalued, any loss on disposal that represents an impairment would be charged to operating
results and any remaining loss reported in ‘other gains and losses’.
Essentially, gains and losses should be reported on the basis of the characteristics of the gains and losses themselves.
Gains and losses with similar characteristics should be reported together thus helping the comparability of financial
performance nationally and internationally.


(b) Good Sports Limited has successfully followed a niche strategy to date.

Assess the extent to which an appropriate e-business strategy could help support such a niche strategy.

(8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Good Sports has pursued a conscious niche or focus differentiation strategy, seeking to serve a local market in a way that
isolates it from the competition of the large national sports good retailers competing on the basis of supplying famous brands
at highly competitive prices. Does it make strategic sense for Good Sports to make the heavy investment necessary to supply
goods online? Will this enhance its ability to supply their chosen market?
In terms of price, e-business is bringing much greater price transparency – the problem for companies like Good Sports is
that customers may use their expertise to research into a particular type and brand of sports equipment and then simply
search the Internet for the cheapest supply. Porter in an article examining the impact of the Internet argues that rather than
making strategy obsolete it has in fact made it more important. The Internet has tended to weaken industry profitability and
made it more difficult to hold onto operational advantages. Choosing which customers you serve and how are even more
critical decisions.
However the personal advice and performance side of the business could be linked to new ways of promoting the product
and communicating with the customer. The development of customer communities referred to above could be a real way of
increasing customer loyalty. The partners are anxious to avoid head-on competition with the national retailers. One way of
increasing the size and strength of the niche they occupy is to use the Internet as a means of targeting their particular
customers and providing insights into the use and performance of certain types of equipment by local clubs and users. There
is considerable scope for innovation that enhances the service offered to their customers. As always there is a need to balance
the costs and benefits of time spent. The Internet can provide a relatively cost effective way of providing greater service to
their customers. There is little in the scenario to suggest they have reached saturation point in their chosen niche market.
Overall there is a need for Good Sports to decide what and where its market is and how this can be improved by the use ofe-business.


(c) Describe the examination procedures you should use to verify Cusiter Co’s prospective financial information.

(9 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Examination procedures
■ The arithmetic accuracy of the PFI should be confirmed, i.e. subtotals and totals should be recast and agreed.
■ The actual information for the year to 31 December 2006 that is shown as comparative information should be agreed
to the audited financial statements for that year to ensure consistency.
■ Balances and transaction totals for the quarter to 31 March 2007 should be agreed to general ledger account balances
at that date. The net book value of property, plant and equipment should be agreed to the non-current asset register;
accounts receivable/payable to control accounts and cash at bank to a bank reconciliation statement.
■ Tenders for the new equipment should be inspected to confirm the additional cost included in property, plant and
equipment included in the forecast for the year to 31 December 2008 and that it can be purchased with the funds being
lent by the bank.
■ The reasonableness of all new assumptions should be considered. For example, the expected useful life of the new
equipment, the capacity at which it will be operating, the volume of new product that can be sold, and at what price.
■ The forecast income statement should be reviewed for completeness of costs associated with the expansion. For
example, operating expenses should include salaries of additional equipment operatives or supervisors.
■ The consistency of accounting practices reflected in the forecast with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
should be considered. For example, the intangible asset might be expected to be less than $10,000 at 31 December
2008 as it should be carried at amortised cost.
■ The cost of property, plant and equipment at 31 December 2008 is $280,000 more than as at 31 December 2007.
Consideration should be given to the adequacy of borrowing $250,000 if the actual investment is $30,000 more.
■ The terms of existing borrowings (both non-current and short-term) should be reviewed to ensure that the forecast takes
full account of existing repayment schedules. For example, to confirm that only $23,000 of term borrowings will become
current by the end of 2007.
Trends should be reviewed and fluctuations explained, for example:
■ Revenue for the first quarter of 2007 is only 22% of revenue for 2006 and so may appear to be understated. However,
revenue may not be understated if sales are seasonal and the first quarter is traditionally ‘quieter’.
■ Forecast revenue for 2007 is 18% up on 2006. However, forecast revenue for 2008 is only 19% up on 2007. As the
growth in 2007 is before the investment in new plant and equipment it does not look as though the new investment
will be contributing significantly to increased growth in the first year.
■ The gross profit % is maintained at around 29% for the three years. However, the earnings before interest and tax (EBIT)
% is forecast to fall by 2% for 2008. Earnings after interest might be worrying to the potential lender as this is forecast
to rise from 12·2% in 2006 to 13·7% in 2007 but then fall to 7·6% in 2008.
The reasonableness of relationships between income statement and balance sheet items should be considered. For example:
■ The average collection period at each of the balance sheet dates presented is 66, 69, 66 and 66 days respectively (e.g.
71/394 × 365 = 66 days). Although it may be realistic to assume that the current average collection period may be
maintained in future it is possible that it could deteriorate if, for example, new customers taken on to launch the new
product are not as credit worthy as the existing customer base.
■ The number of days sales in inventory at each balance sheet date is 66, 88, 66 and 65 days respectively (e.g. 50/278
× 365 = 66 days). The reason for the increase to 88 at the end of the first quarter must be established and
management’s assertion that 66 days will be re-established as the ‘norm’ corroborated.
■ As the $42,000 movement on retained earnings from 2007 to 2008 is the earnings before income tax for 2008 it may
be that there is no tax in 2008 or that tax effects have not been forecast. (However, some deferred tax effect might be
expected if the investment in new plant and equipment is likely to attract accelerated capital allowances.)


(ii) State, giving reasons, the tax reliefs in relation to inheritance tax (IHT) and capital gains tax (CGT) which

would be available to Alasdair if he acquires the warehouse and leases it to Gallus & Co, rather than to

an unconnected tenant. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Apart from the fact that Alasdair can keep an eye on his tenant, the main advantages are twofold:
IHT: If the firm are the tenants, the property will be land and buildings used in a business carried on by a partnership
in which the donor is a partner. Thus, Alasdair will be able to claim business property relief (BPR) at a rate of 50%
so long as he remains a partner in the firm. However, this relief would not be available until Alasdair has owned
the property for at least two years from his firm taking up the tenancy.
CGT: As Alasdair is a partner in the firm using the building, it will also be a qualifying asset for the purposes of rollover
relief on any gains arising from the disposal of the property. Assuming that Alasdair acquires a replacement asset
which will be used in the trade, the gain on sale can be deferred against the tax base cost of the replacement asset.
In the event that rollover relief cannot be used, any gains on disposal will be subject to business asset taper relief.


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第3节


3 Joe Lawson is founder and Managing Director of Lawson Engineering, a medium sized, privately owned family

business specialising in the design and manufacture of precision engineering products. Its customers are major

industrial customers in the aerospace, automotive and chemical industries, many of which are globally recognised

companies. Lawson prides itself on the long-term relationships it has built up with these high profile customers. The

strength of these relationships is built on Lawson’s worldwide reputation for engineering excellence, which has

tangible recognition in its gaining prestigious international awards for product and process innovation and quality

performance. Lawson Engineering is a company name well known in its chosen international markets. Its reputation

has been enhanced by the awarding of a significant number of worldwide patents for the highly innovative products

it has designed. This in turn reflects the commitment to recruiting highly skilled engineers, facilitating positive staff

development and investing in significant research and development.

Its products command premium prices and are key to the superior performance of its customers’ products. Lawson

Engineering has also established long-term relationships with its main suppliers, particularly those making the exotic

materials built into their advanced products. Such relationships are crucial in research and development projects,

some of which take a number of years to come to fruition. Joe Lawson epitomises the ‘can do’ philosophy of the

company, always willing to take on the complex engineering challenges presented by his demanding customers.

Lawson Engineering now faces problems caused by its own success. Its current location, premises and facilities are

inadequate to allow the continued growth of the company. Joe is faced with the need to fund a new, expensive,

purpose-built facility on a new industrial estate. Although successful against a number of performance criteria, Lawson

Engineering’s performance against traditional financial measures has been relatively modest and unlikely to impress

the financial backers Joe wants to provide the necessary long-term capital.

Joe has become aware of the increasing attention paid to the intangible resources of a firm in a business. He

understands that you, as a strategy consultant, can advise him on the best way to show that his business should be

judged on the complete range of assets it possesses.

Required:

(a) Using models where appropriate, provide Joe with a resource analysis showing why the company’s intangible

resources and related capabilities should be taken into account when assessing Lawson Engineering’s case

for financial support. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) To: Joe Lawson, Managing Director, Lawson Engineering
From:
Business case for financial support
The treatment of intangible resources is an area of considerable concern to the financial community and in many ways the
situation that Lawson Engineering finds itself, is typical of the current confusion surrounding the value placed on intangible
resources. This in turn reflects a traditional concern that the strategic health and the financial health of a business are not
one and the same thing. Intangible resources cover a wide variety of assets and skills found in the business. These include
the intellectual property rights of patents; brands; trademarks; trade secrets etc through to people-determined assets such as
know-how; internal and external networks; organisational culture and the reputation of the company.
It is important for you to present a case which shows how the investment in intangible resources is just as important a source
of value creation for the customer as is investment in tangible assets such as plant and finance which are traditionally focused
on in financial statements of the firm’s well being. As one source expresses it, ‘for most companies, intangible resources
contribute much more to total asset value’. Kaplan and Norton in a 2004 article on intangible assets go further and argue
that ‘measuring the value of such intangible assets is the holy grail of accounting’. The increasing importance of service
businesses and service activities in the firm’s value chain compound the problems faced in getting a true reflection of the
firm’s ability to create value. One view is that the key value creation activity lies in the relationships a firm has with its key
stakeholders – its customers, suppliers and employees. These relationships develop into distinctive capabilities, defined as
‘something it can do that its competitors cannot’. These distinctive capabilities only become competitive advantage(s) when
the capability is applied to a relevant market. Firms attain a sustainable competitive advantage when they consistently
produce products or services with attributes that align with the key buying criteria for the majority of customers in the chosen
market.
Competitive advantage, to be strategically significant, must have the twin virtues of sustainability and appropriability.
Sustainability means the ability to sustain an advantage over a period of time. Fairly obviously, assets such as plant and
technology may be easily obtainable in the open market, however it is only when they are combined with less tangible
resources that advantages become sustainable over time because competitors cannot easily copy them. Equally significant
are intangible resources such as reputation and organisational culture in that they influence the firm’s ability to hold on to
or appropriate some of the value it creates. If other stakeholders both inside and outside the firm are able to take more than
their fair share of value created – for example customers forcing down prices or employees demanding excessive wage
increases – this will reduce the funds available for the firm to invest in further development of its intangible resources, and
as a consequence begin to weaken its competitive advantage.

Essentially, intangible resources can be separated into those capabilities that are based on assets and those that are based
on skills. As one source puts it asset based advantages are derived from ‘having’ a particular asset and skills based advantages
stem from the ability to be ‘doing’ things competitors are unable to do. Assets are those things that the firms ‘owns’ – the
intellectual property as embodied in patents, trademarks and associated brands, copyrights, recognised by law and
defendable against copying under that law. It is worth noting the effort and investment that many companies are putting into
defending their intellectual property against the threat of copying and piracy. A more recent asset that many firms spend
considerable time and effort in developing are databases on key activities in the firm’s value chain – customer databases are
only one of the possible sources of firm information and know-how. One of the most prized intangible assets is that of the
firm’s reputation which may reflect the power of the brands it has created. Reputation may be easier to maintain than create
and meets the key tests of sustainability. The capability to produce innovation consistently may be instrumental in creating
in the minds of customers the longer-term competitive advantage of reputation. Reputation is argued to represent the
knowledge and emotions the customer may associate with a firm’s product range and can therefore be a major factor in
securing the competitive advantage derived through effective differentiation.
A positive organisational culture, staff know-how and networks are equally important intangible sources of competitive
advantage. These by their very nature may be more dynamic than asset based intangibles and the know-how of employees
in particular is an intangible resource that results in the distinctive capabilities which differentiate the firm from its competitors.
Much has been written about the significance of organisational culture and the way it reflects the style. of top management,
the ‘can do’ culture of Lawson Engineering clearly creates a competitive advantage. One interesting study of how chief
executive officers rate their intangible resources in terms of their contribution to the overall success of the business showed
that company reputation, product reputation and employee know-how were the most highly regarded intangible resources.
Hamel and Prahalad argue that core competences rather than market position are the real source of competitive advantage.
They gave three tests to identify a core competence – firstly the competence should provide potential access to a wide variety
of markets and thus be capable of being leveraged to good effect, secondly, it should be relevant to the customer’s key buying
criteria and thirdly, it should be difficult for competitors to imitate.
The disadvantages of intangibles stem from the differing value placed on such assets and competences by the various
interested stakeholders. How should a company’s reputation be measured? How long will that reputation yield competitive
advantage, particularly in view of how swiftly such reputations can disappear? It seems likely that the financial markets with
their ability to reflect all knowledge and information about the firm in its share price increasingly will take the contribution of
intangibles into account.
Overall the case should be clearly made that the strengths of the company rests in its unique combination of intangible
resources and the capabilities – both internal and external – that it has. Financial health is not always the same as strategichealth and by any objective measure Lawson Engineering is worthy of support.
Yours,
Strategy consultant


(c) Discuss the factors that might influence whether the initial bid is likely to be accepted by the shareholders of Wragger plc.

正确答案:

(c) The type of payment might influence the success of the bid. Paxis is proposing a share for share exchange which offers a continuation in ownership of the entity, albeit as part of the successful bidder. However, relative share prices will change during the period of the bid, and the owner of shares in the potential victim company will not know the precise postacquisition value of the bid. An alternative might be cash payments which provides a known, precise sum, and might be favoured for this reason. However, in some countries payment in cash might lead to an immediate capital gains tax liability for the investor.

The effective price offered would of course be a major influence. Paxis would need to offer a premium over the existing share price, but the size of the premium that would be acceptable is unknown. Informal discussions with major shareholders of Wragger might assist in determining this (subject to such discussions being permitted by the regulatory authorities).


(c) Without changing the advice you have given in (b), or varying the terms of Luke’s will, explain how Mabel

could further reduce her eventual inheritance tax liability and quantify the tax saving that could be made.

(3 marks)

The increase in the retail prices index from April 1984 to April 1998 is 84%.

You should assume that the rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 will continue to apply for the

foreseeable future.

正确答案:
(c) Further advice
Mabel should consider delaying one of the gifts until after 1 May 2007 such that it is made more than seven years after the
gift to the discretionary trust. Both PETs would then be covered by the nil rate band resulting in a saving of inheritance tax
of £6,720 (from (b)).
Mabel should ensure that she uses her inheritance tax annual exemption of £3,000 every year by, say, making gifts of £1,500
each year to both Bruce and Padma. The effect of this will be to save inheritance tax of £1,200 (£3,000 x 40%) every year.


2 Misson, a public limited company, has carried out transactions denominated in foreign currency during the financial

year ended 31 October 2006 and has conducted foreign operations through a foreign entity. Its functional and

presentation currency is the dollar. A summary of the foreign currency activities is set out below:

(a) Misson has a 100% owned foreign subsidiary, Chong, which was formed on 1 November 2004 with a share

capital of 100 million euros which has been taken as the cost of the investment. The total shareholders’ equity

of the subsidiary as at 31 October 2005 and 31 October 2006 was 140 million euros and 160 million euros

respectively. Chong has not paid any dividends to Misson and has no other reserves than retained earnings in its

financial statements. The subsidiary was sold on 31 October 2006 for 195 million euros.

Misson would like to know how to treat the sale of the subsidiary in the parent and group accounts for the year

ended 31 October 2006. (8 marks)

Required:

Discuss the accounting treatment of the above transactions in accordance with the advice required by the

directors.

(Candidates should show detailed workings as well as a discussion of the accounting treatment used.)

正确答案:


1 Bailey’s is a large toy manufacturer based in a traditional industrial region. Established in the 1970s, it has faced many changes in the market and survived. This has been due in part to employing a largely unskilled low paid staff,and maintaining its main advantage, that of low production costs based on low pay. Most of the production involves repetitive and boring work with little challenge and opportunity for innovation. Although many of the employees have

been with the company for some time, there has been a high level of employee turnover.

However, an unhappy atmosphere has been apparent for some time. There has been a number of instances ofarguments between the staff, friction between different departments, disturbance, low morale, poor production and general unrest, made worse recently by a decline in business which may lead to staff reduction and redundancy. Poor pay is leading to family problems that are affecting the commitment and motivation of the employees.

The business was recently sold to the new owner, Rebecca Stonewall. She is concerned that the negative atmosphere she has found will harm the prospects of the business and is determined to address the issues that have become apparent.

She has therefore decided that it is time to take account of opinions and views of the employees in an attempt both to identify the problems and to resolve them. She has appointed external counsellors since she thinks that a programme of individual counselling might be appropriate and is also of the opinion that some form. of different or improved approach to motivation might be the answer to the problems at Bailey’s.

Required:

(a) Define the role that the external counsellor must fulfil at Bailey’s. (3 marks)

正确答案:
1 One of the many skills that managers are called upon to use is counselling. Situations often arise in the workplace where particular and careful people-centred skills are required. It is important that managers understand exactly what counselling involves and the delicate skills involved. In addition, many problems identified by counselling can be resolved through appropriate methods of motivation. Widening and deepening interest in the organisation and its many tasks and departments is a tried and tested method
for motivating employees. However, financial rewards remain a strong and important motivator.
(a) The external counsellor’s role must be as ‘a person who takes on the role of counsellor and agrees explicitly to offer time,attention, advice, guidance and support to another person (or persons) temporarily in the role of client’.


(b) Good Sports Limited has successfully followed a niche strategy to date.

Assess the extent to which an appropriate e-business strategy could help support such a niche strategy.

(8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Good Sports has pursued a conscious niche or focus differentiation strategy, seeking to serve a local market in a way that
isolates it from the competition of the large national sports good retailers competing on the basis of supplying famous brands
at highly competitive prices. Does it make strategic sense for Good Sports to make the heavy investment necessary to supply
goods online? Will this enhance its ability to supply their chosen market?
In terms of price, e-business is bringing much greater price transparency – the problem for companies like Good Sports is
that customers may use their expertise to research into a particular type and brand of sports equipment and then simply
search the Internet for the cheapest supply. Porter in an article examining the impact of the Internet argues that rather than
making strategy obsolete it has in fact made it more important. The Internet has tended to weaken industry profitability and
made it more difficult to hold onto operational advantages. Choosing which customers you serve and how are even more
critical decisions.
However the personal advice and performance side of the business could be linked to new ways of promoting the product
and communicating with the customer. The development of customer communities referred to above could be a real way of
increasing customer loyalty. The partners are anxious to avoid head-on competition with the national retailers. One way of
increasing the size and strength of the niche they occupy is to use the Internet as a means of targeting their particular
customers and providing insights into the use and performance of certain types of equipment by local clubs and users. There
is considerable scope for innovation that enhances the service offered to their customers. As always there is a need to balance
the costs and benefits of time spent. The Internet can provide a relatively cost effective way of providing greater service to
their customers. There is little in the scenario to suggest they have reached saturation point in their chosen niche market.
Overall there is a need for Good Sports to decide what and where its market is and how this can be improved by the use ofe-business.


(d) What criteria would you use to assess whether Universal is an ‘excellent’ company? (5 marks)

正确答案:
(d) One of the most widely used models to identify excellence is that of Peters and Waterman developed in their research into
excellent American companies. Interestingly, they agreed with Leavitt in that the companies identified as excellent, whether
they were manufacturers or service businesses, could be seen as offering an excellent service to their customers. This required
them to understand what their customers really valued and then put in place the resources, competences and decision making
processes that delivered the desired attributes. Excellence was positively associated with innovation. Using their checklist of
excellent attributes, Universal could see to be excellent in the following ways:
A bias for action – there is evidence to suggest that both Matthew and Simon are action orientated. They showed an admirable
willingness to experiment and develop a service that added significant value to the customer experience.
Hands-on, value driven – again, the commitment to deliver a quality service – one that they are totally familiar with and able
to deliver themselves – suggests that this value is communicated and shared with staff. The use of self employed installers
and sales people make this commitment particularly important.
Close to the customer – all the evidence points to a real and deep understanding of customer needs. The opportunity for the
business stems from the poor customer service provided by their small competitors. Systems are designed to achieve the ‘no
surprises’ service, which leads to significant levels of customer recommendation and advocacy.
Autonomy and entrepreneurship – there is evidence of a strong belief that individuals and teams should be encouraged to
compete with one another, but not in ways that compromise the quality of the service delivered.
Simple form. – lean staff – Universal is a small functionally managed firm. There is no evidence of creating a large
headquarters, since managers are closely involved with the day-to-day management of their function.
Productivity through people – people are key to the service provided and there is recognition that teams are crucial to the
firm’s growth and success.
Simultaneous loose-tight properties – more difficult to identify in a small company, but there is clearly commitment to shared
values and giving people the freedom to achieve results within this value framework.
These measures of excellence again show the importance of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ factors in achieving outstanding performance.
An alternative interpretation is to see these attributes as critical success factors, which if achieved, are clearly linked to key
performance indicators. Universal’s growth shows the link between strategy and the qualities needed to achieve this growth.
The ubiquitous balanced scorecard could also be used to measure four key criteria of company performance and
benchmarking the company against the major installers could also provide evidence of excellence. The recent gaining of a
government award for Universal’s contribution to inner city job creation is also a useful indicator of all round excellence.


(d) Player trading

Another proposal is for the club to sell its two valuable players, Aldo and Steel. It is thought that it will receive a

total of $16 million for both players. The players are to be offered for sale at the end of the current football season

on 1 May 2007. (5 marks)

Required:

Discuss how the above proposals would be dealt with in the financial statements of Seejoy for the year ending

31 December 2007, setting out their accounting treatment and appropriateness in helping the football club’s

cash flow problems.

(Candidates do not need knowledge of the football finance sector to answer this question.)

正确答案:


10 Which of the following factors would cause a company’s gearing ratio to fall?

1 A bonus issue of ordinary shares.

2 A rights issue of ordinary shares.

3 An issue of loan notes.

4 An upward revaluation of non-current assets.

A 1 and 3

B 2 and 3

C 1 and 4

D 2 and 4

正确答案:D


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第4节


(ii) Any increase or decrease in the group’s budgeted corporation tax liability for the year ending 30 June

2008 due to the restructuring on the assumption that trading losses will be used as efficiently as

possible. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(ii) The budgeted corporation tax liability for the year ending 30 June 2008
Following the proposed restructuring, Rapier Ltd will be carrying on four separate trades. The current year loss arising
in the Dirk trade can be offset against its total profits. Its three subsidiaries will be dormant and will not be associates
for the purpose of determining the rate of corporation tax.


(b) (i) Explain the matters you should consider to determine whether capitalised development costs are

appropriately recognised; and (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Materiality
The net book value of capitalised development costs represent 7% of total assets in 2007 (2006 – 7·7%), and is
therefore material. The net book value has increased by 13%, a significant trend.
The costs capitalised during the year amount to $750,000. If it was found that the development cost had been
inappropriately capitalised, the cost should instead have been expensed. This would reduce profit before tax by
$750,000, representing 42% of the year’s profit. This is highly material. It is therefore essential to gather sufficient
evidence to support the assertion that development costs should be recognised as an asset.
In 2007, $750,000 capitalised development costs have been incurred, when added to $160,000 research costs
expensed, total research and development costs are $910,000 which represents 20·2% of total revenue, again
indicating a high level of materiality for this class of transaction.
Relevant accounting standard
Development costs should only be capitalised as an intangible asset if the recognition criteria of IAS 38 Intangible Assets
have been demonstrated in full:
– Intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it
– Technical feasibility and ability to use or sell
– Ability to generate future economic benefit
– Availability of technical, financial and other resources to complete
– Ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset.
Research costs must be expensed, as should development costs which do not comply with the above criteria. The
auditors must consider how Sci-Tech Co differentiates between research and development costs.
There is risk that not all of the criteria have been demonstrated, especially due to the subjective nature of the
development itself:
– Pharmaceutical development is highly regulated. If the government does not license the product then the product
cannot be sold, and economic benefits will therefore not be received.
– Market research should justify the commercial viability of the product. The launch of a rival product to Flortex
means that market share is likely to be much lower than anticipated, and the ability to sell Flortex is reduced. This
could mean that Flortex will not generate an overall economic benefit if future sales will not recover the research
and development costs already suffered, and yet to be suffered, prior to launch. The existence of the rival product
could indicate that Flortex is no longer commercially viable, in which case the capitalised development costs
relating to Flortex should be immediately expensed.
– The funding on which development is dependent may be withdrawn, indicating that there are not adequate
resources to complete the development of the products. Sci-Tech has failed to meet one of its required key
performance indicators (KPI) in the year ended 30 November 2007, as products valued at 0·8% revenue have
been donated to charity, whereas the required KPI is 1% revenue.
Given that there is currently a breach of the target KPIs, this is likely to result in funding equivalent to 25% of
research and development expenditure being withdrawn. If Sci-Tech Co is unable to source alternative means of
finance, then it would seem that adequate resources may not be available to complete the development of new
products.


(b) Describe the audit work to be performed in respect of the carrying amount of the following items in the

balance sheet of GVF as at 30 September 2005:

(i) goat herd; (4 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Audit work on carrying amounts
Tutorial note: This part concerns audit work to be undertaken in respect of non-current tangible assets (the production
animals in the goat herd and certain equipment) and inventories (the for-sale animals and cheese). One of the ‘tests’ for
assessing whether or not a point is worthy of a mark will be whether or not the asset to which it relates is apparent. Points
which are so vague that they could apply to ANY non-current asset for ANY entity, rather than those of GVF are unlikely to
attract many marks, if any, at this level.
(i) Goat herd
■ Physical inspection of the number and condition of animals in the herd and confirming, on a test basis, that they
are tagged (or otherwise ‘branded’ as being owned by GVF).
■ Tests of controls on management’s system of identifying and distinguishing held-for-sale animals (inventory) from
the production herd (depreciable non-current assets).
■ Comparison of GVF’s depreciation policies (including useful lives, depreciation methods and residual values) with
those used by other farming entities.
■ ‘Proof in total’, or other reasonableness check, of the depreciation charge for the herd for the year.
■ Observing test counts or total counts of animals held for sale.
■ Comparing carrying amounts of the kids, according to their weight and age, as at 30 September 2005 with their
market values. (These may approximate to actual invoiced selling prices obtained by GVF.)
Tutorial note: Market value of the production herd could also be compared with its carrying amount to assess possible
impairment. However, if value in use appears to be less than market value the herd should be sold rather than used
for production.


(b) Using relevant evaluation criteria, assess how achievable and compatible these three strategic goals are over

the next five years. (20 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The three strategic goals are to become the leading premium ice cream brand in the UK; to increase sales to £25 million;
and to achieve a significant entry into the supermarket sector. On the basis of performance to date these goals will certainly
be stretching. All three strategies will involve significant growth in the company. Johnson and Scholes list three success criteria
against which the strategies can be assessed, namely suitability, acceptability and feasibility. Suitability is a test of whether a
strategy addresses the situation in which a company is operating. In Johnson and Scholes’ terms it is the firm’s ‘strategic
position’, an understanding of which comes from the analysis done in the answer to the question above. Acceptability is
concerned with the likely performance outcomes of the strategy and in particular whether the return and risk are in line with
the expectations of the stakeholders. Feasibility is the extent to which the strategy can be made to work and is determined
by the strategic capability of the company reflecting the resources available to implement the strategy. It is interesting to see
that the three growth related goals are compatible in that becoming the leading premium brand will involve increased market
penetration, product development and market development. If achieved it will increase sales and necessitate a successful
entry into the supermarket sector. Time will be an important influence on the success or otherwise of these growth goals –
five years seems to be a reasonable length of time to achieve these ambitious targets.
Suitability – Churchill is currently a small but significant player at the premium end of the market. This segment is becoming
more significant and is attractive because of the high prices and high margins attainable. This is leading to more intense
competition with global companies. One immediate question that springs to mind is what precisely does ‘leading brand’
mean? The most obvious test is that of market share and unless Churchill achieve the access to the supermarkets looked for
in the third strategic goal, seems difficult to achieve. If ‘leading brand’ implies brand recognition this again looks very
ambitious. On the positive side this segment of the ice cream market is showing significant growth and Churchill’s success
in gaining sponsorship rights to major sporting events is a step in the right direction. The combination of high price and high
quality should position the company where it wants to be. Achieving sales of £25 million represents a quantum shift in
performance in a company that has to date only achieved modest levels of sales growth.
Acceptability – as a family owned business the balance between risk and return is an important one. The family to date has
been ‘happy’ with a modest rate of growth and modest return in terms of profits. The other significant stakeholder group is
the professional managers headed up by Richard Smith. They seem much more growth orientated and may be happier with
the risks that the growth strategy entails. The family members seem more interested in the manufacturing side than the
retailing side of the business and their bad previous experiences with growing the business through international market
development may mean they are risk averse and less willing to invest the necessary resources.
Feasibility – again this is linked to how ‘leading brand’ is defined. If as seems likely the brand becomes more widely known
through increasing the number of company owned ice cream stores then a significant investment in retail outlets will be
necessary. Increasing the number of franchised outlets will reduce the financial resources required but may be at the expense
of the brand’s reputation. Certainly there would seem to be a need for increased levels of advertising and promotion –
particularly to gain access to the ice cream cabinets in the supermarket chains. This is likely to mean an increase in the
number of sales and marketing staff. Equally important will be the ability to develop and launch new products in a luxury
market shaped by impulse buying and customers looking to indulge themselves.
Overall, becoming the leading brand of premium ice cream may well be the key to achieving the desired presence in the
supermarket ice cream cabinets, which in turn is a pre-requisite for increasing company sales to £25 million. So the three
strategic goals may be regarded as consistent and compatible with one another. However each strategic goal will have to be
broken down into its key elements. For example in achieving sales of £25 million what proportion of sales will come from its
own ice cream stores and what proportion from other outlets including the supermarkets? Sales to date of Churchill ice cream
are dominated by impulse purchases but in achieving sales of £25 million penetrating the take home market will be essential.
Finally, what proportion of these take home sales will be under the supermarkets own label brands? Over reliance on own
label sales will seriously weaken Churchill’s desire to become the leading national brand of premium ice cream. It looks to
be an ambitious but attainable strategy but will require a significant planning effort to develop the necessary resources andcapabilities vital to successful implementation of the strategy.


You are the manager responsible for performing hot reviews on audit files where there is a potential disagreement

between your firm and the client regarding a material issue. You are reviewing the going concern section of the audit

file of Dexter Co, a client with considerable cash flow difficulties, and other, less significant operational indicators of

going concern problems. The working papers indicate that Dexter Co is currently trying to raise finance to fund

operating cash flows, and state that if the finance is not received, there is significant doubt over the going concern

status of the company. The working papers conclude that the going concern assumption is appropriate, but it is

recommended that the financial statements should contain a note explaining the cash flow problems faced by the

company, along with a description of the finance being sought, and an evaluation of the going concern status of the

company. The directors do not wish to include the note in the financial statements.

Required:

(b) Consider and comment on the possible reasons why the directors of Dexter Co are reluctant to provide the

note to the financial statements. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Directors reluctance to disclose
The directors are likely to have several reasons behind their reluctance to disclose the note as recommended by the audit
manager. The first is that the disclosure of Dexter Co’s poor cash flow position and perilous going concern status may reflect
badly on the directors themselves. The company’s shareholders and other stakeholders will be displeased to see the company
in such a poor position, and the directors will be held accountable for the problems. Of course it may not be the case that
the directors have exercised poor management of the company – the problems could be caused by external influences outside
the control of the directors. However, it is natural that the directors will not want to highlight the situation in order to protect
their own position.
Secondly, the note could itself trigger further financial distress for the company. Dexter Co is trying to raise finance, and it is
probable that the availability of further finance will be detrimentally affected by the disclosure of the company’s financial
problems. In particular, if the cash flow difficulties are highlighted, providers of finance will consider the company too risky
an investment, and are not likely to make funds available for fear of non-repayment. Existing lenders may seek repayment of
their funds in fear that the company may be unable in the future to meet repayments.
In addition, the disclosures could cause operational problems, for example, suppliers may curtail trading relationships as they
become concerned that they will not be paid, or customers may be deterred from purchasing from the company if they feel
that there is no long-term future for the business. Unfortunately the mere disclosure of financial problems can be self-fulfilling,
and cause such further problems for the company that it is pushed into non-going concern status.
The directors may also be concerned that if staff were to hear of this they may worry about the future of the company and
seek alternative employment, which could lead in turn to the loss of key members of staff. This would be detrimental to the
business and trigger further operational problems.
Finally, the reluctance to disclose may be caused by an entirely different reason. The directors could genuinely feel that the
cash flow and operational problems faced by the company do not constitute factors affecting the going concern status. They
may be confident that although a final decision has not been made regarding financing, the finance is likely to be forthcoming,
and therefore there is no long-term material uncertainty over the future of the company. However audit working papers
conclude that there is a significant level of doubt over the going concern status of Dexter Co, and therefore it seems that the
directors may be over optimistic if they feel that there is no significant doubt to be disclosed in the financial statements.


(b) Explain Mintzberg’s five organisational components. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The strategic apex is the highest level of the organisation and is therefore the highest level of management. This part ensures that the organisation’s mission is followed and manages the relationship with the environment.
The operating core is the part that represents the productive activity of the organisation, gathering inputs and, through conversion, turns them into outputs.
The middle line represents that part of the organisation where the middle managers operate. The role of this part is to turn the instructions of the strategic apex into activities for the operating core.
The technostructure includes the staff who provide a technical or supportive activity but which are not a part of the core activities. This part of the organisation includes the engineering, accounting and human resource departments.
The support staff carry out the ancillary activities that are neither part of the core nor the technostructure. Support staff have no role in the direct activities of the organisation: these activities include catering and public relations.(Students may draw the appropriate diagram)


2 The Rubber Group (TRG) manufactures and sells a number of rubber-based products. Its strategic focus is channelled

through profit centres which sell products transferred from production divisions that are operated as cost centres. The

profit centres are the primary value-adding part of the business, where commercial profit centre managers are

responsible for the generation of a contribution margin sufficient to earn the target return of TRG. The target return is

calculated after allowing for the sum of the agreed budgeted cost of production at production divisions, plus the cost

of marketing, selling and distribution costs and central services costs.

The Bettamould Division is part of TRG and manufactures moulded products that it transfers to profit centres at an

agreed cost per tonne. The agreed cost per tonne is set following discussion between management of the Bettamould

Division and senior management of TRG.

The following information relates to the agreed budget for the Bettamould Division for the year ending 30 June 2009:

(1) The budgeted output of moulded products to be transferred to profit centres is 100,000 tonnes. The budgeted

transfer cost has been agreed on a two-part basis as follows:

(i) A standard variable cost of $200 per tonne of moulded products;

(ii) A lump sum annual charge of $50,000,000 in respect of fixed costs, which is charged to profit centres, at

$500 per tonne of moulded products.

(2) Budgeted standard variable costs (as quoted in 1 above) have been set after incorporating each of the following:

(i) A provision in respect of processing losses amounting to 15% of material inputs. Materials are sourced on

a JIT basis from chosen suppliers who have been used for some years. It is felt that the 15% level of losses

is necessary because the ageing of the machinery will lead to a reduction in the efficiency of output levels.

(ii) A provision in respect of machine idle time amounting to 5%. This is incorporated into variable machine

costs. The idle time allowance is held at the 5% level partly through elements of ‘real-time’ maintenance

undertaken by the machine operating teams as part of their job specification.

(3) Quality checks are carried out on a daily basis on 25% of throughput tonnes of moulded products.

(4) All employees and management have contracts based on fixed annual salary agreements. In addition, a bonus

of 5% of salary is payable as long as the budgeted output of 100,000 tonnes has been achieved;

(5) Additional information relating to the points in (2) above (but NOT included in the budget for the year ending

30 June 2009) is as follows:

(i) There is evidence that materials of an equivalent specification could be sourced for 40% of the annual

requirement at the Bettamould Division, from another division within TRG which has spare capacity.

(ii) There is evidence that a move to machine maintenance being outsourced from a specialist company could

help reduce machine idle time and hence allow the possibility of annual output in excess of 100,000 tonnes

of moulded products.

(iii) It is thought that the current level of quality checks (25% of throughput on a daily basis) is vital, although

current evidence shows that some competitor companies are able to achieve consistent acceptable quality

with a quality check level of only 10% of throughput on a daily basis.

The directors of TRG have decided to investigate claims relating to the use of budgeting within organisations which

have featured in recent literature. A summary of relevant points from the literature is contained in the following

statement:

‘The use of budgets as part of a ‘performance contract’ between an organisation and its managers may be seen as a

practice that causes management action which might lead to the following problems:

(a) Meeting only the lowest targets

(b) Using more resources than necessary

(c) Making the bonus – whatever it takes

(d) Competing against other divisions, business units and departments

(e) Ensuring that what is in the budget is spent

(f) Providing inaccurate forecasts

(g) Meeting the target, but not beating it

(h) Avoiding risks.’

Required:

(a) Explain the nature of any SIX of the eight problems listed above relating to the use of budgeting;

(12 marks)

正确答案:
2 Suggested answer content for each of the eight problems contained within the scenario is as follows:
(a) The nature of each of the problems relating to the use of budgeting is as follows:
Meeting only the lowest targets
– infers that once a budget has been negotiated, the budget holder will be satisfied with this level of performance unless
there is good reason to achieve a higher standard.
Using more resources than necessary
– Once the budget has been agreed the focus will be to ensure that the budgeted utilisation of resources has been adhered
to. Indeed the current system does not provide a specific incentive not to exceed the budget level. It may be, however,
that failure to achieve budget targets would reflect badly on factors such as future promotion prospects or job security.
Making the bonus – whatever it takes
– A bonus system is linked to the budget setting and achievement process might lead to actions by employees and
management which they regard as ‘fair game’. This is because they view the maximisation of bonuses as the main
priority in any aspect of budget setting or work output.
Competing against other divisions, business units and departments
– Competition may manifest itself through the attitudes adopted in relation to transfer pricing of goods/services between
divisions, lack of willingness to co-operate on sharing information relating to methods, sources of supply, expertise, etc.
Ensuring that what is in the budget is spent
– Management may see the budget setting process as a competition for resources. Irrespective of the budgeting method
used, there will be a tendency to feel that unless the budget allowance for one year is spent, there will be imposed
reductions in the following year. This will be particularly relevant in the case of fixed cost areas where expenditure is
viewed as discretionary to some extent.
Providing inaccurate forecasts
– This infers that some aspects of budgeting problems such as ‘Gaming’ and ‘misrepresentation’ may be employed by the
budget holder in order to gain some advantage. Gaming may be seen as a deliberate distortion of the measure in order
to secure some strategic advantage. Misrepresentation refers to creative planning in order to suggest that the measure
is acceptable.
Meeting the target but not beating it
– There may be a view held by those involved in the achievement of the budget target that there is no incentive for them
to exceed that level of effectiveness.
Avoiding risks
– There may be a prevailing view by those involved in the achievement of the budget target that wherever possible
strategies incorporated into the achievement of the budget objective should be left unchanged if they have been shown
to be acceptable in the past. Change may be viewed as increasing the level of uncertainty that the proposed budget
target will be achievable.


(c) Assess the likely criteria which would need to be satisfied for software to be regarded as ‘quality software’.

(4 marks)

正确答案:
(c) The following are important considerations regarding the quality of the business software:
– The software is error-free as this will improve its reliability. Whilst in practice this might not always be achievable the
directors of SSH must recognise the dangers involved in supplying bespoke software which may prove damaging to their
clients’ businesses with the resulting loss of client goodwill.
– The software should meet quality control standards such as those specified by the ISO (International Standards
Organisation).
– The software must be delivered on time. Late delivery of business software will prove problematic since clients may rely
on updated software to meet new customer needs or to fulfil revised business objectives.
– The software must meet the initial specification of the customer. In meeting the specification SSH will be demonstrating
that the software has been produced correctly with an appropriate focus on the requirements of end users.
– The software must be usable i.e. as well as being able to do what it is supposed to do it is important that it is easy to
use.
– The software should be capable of being updated in the light of future changes that occur in the clients’ requirements.


(ii) the factors that should be considered in the design of a reward scheme for BGL; (7 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) The factors that should be considered in the design of a reward scheme for BGL.
– Whether performance targets should be set with regard to results or effort. It is more difficult to set targets for
administrative and support staff since in many instances the results of their efforts are not easily quantifiable. For
example, sales administrators will improve levels of customer satisfaction but quantifying this is extremely difficult.
– Whether rewards should be monetary or non-monetary. Money means different things to different people. In many
instances people will prefer increased job security which results from improved organisational performance and
adopt a longer term-perspective. Thus the attractiveness of employee share option schemes will appeal to such
individuals. Well designed schemes will correlate the prosperity of the organisation with that of the individuals it
employs.
– Whether the reward promise should be implicit or explicit. Explicit reward promises are easy to understand but in
many respects management will have their hands tied. Implicit reward promises such as the ‘promise’ of promotion
for good performance is also problematic since not all organisations are large enough to offer a structured career
progression. Thus in situations where not everyone can be promoted there needs to be a range of alternative reward
systems in place to acknowledge good performance and encourage commitment from the workforce.
– The size and time span of the reward. This can be difficult to determine especially in businesses such as BGL
which are subject to seasonal variations. i.e. summerhouses will invariably be purchased prior to the summer
season! Hence activity levels may vary and there remains the potential problem of assessing performance when
an organisation operates with surplus capacity.
– Whether the reward should be individual or group based. This is potentially problematic for BGL since the assembly
operatives comprise some individuals who are responsible for their own output and others who work in groups.
Similarly with regard to the sales force then the setting of individual performance targets is problematic since sales
territories will vary in terms of geographical spread and customer concentration.
– Whether the reward scheme should involve equity participation? Such schemes invariably appeal to directors and
senior managers but should arguably be open to all individuals if ‘perceptions of inequity’ are to be avoided.
– Tax considerations need to be taken into account when designing a reward scheme.


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第5节


2 Alpha Division, which is part of the Delta Group, is considering an investment opportunity to which the following

estimated information relates:

(1) An initial investment of $45m in equipment at the beginning of year 1 will be depreciated on a straight-line basis

over a three-year period with a nil residual value at the end of year 3.

(2) Net operating cash inflows in each of years 1 to 3 will be $12·5m, $18·5m and $27m respectively.

(3) The management accountant of Alpha Division has estimated that the NPV of the investment would be

$1·937m using a cost of capital of 10%.

(4) A bonus scheme which is based on short-term performance evaluation is in operation in all divisions within the

Delta Group.

Required:

(a) (i) Calculate the residual income of the proposed investment and comment briefly (using ONLY the above

information) on the values obtained in reconciling the short-term and long-term decision views likely to

be adopted by divisional management regarding the viability of the proposed investment. (6 marks)

正确答案:

 


19 What is the company’s return on shareholders’ equity?

A 15/40 = 37·5%

B 20/100 = 20%

C 15/100 = 15%

D 20/150 = 13·3%

正确答案:C


(b) Explain the meaning of the term ‘Efficient Market Hypothesis’ and discuss the implications for a company if

the stock market on which it is listed has been found to be semi-strong form. efficient. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The term ‘Efficient Market Hypothesis’ (EMH) refers to the view that share prices fully and fairly reflect all relevant available
information1. There are other kinds of capital market efficiency, such as operational efficiency (meaning that transaction costs
are low enough not to discourage investors from buying and selling shares), but it is pricing efficiency that is especially
important in financial management.
Research has been carried out to discover whether capital markets are weak form. efficient (share prices reflect all past or
historic information), semi-strong form. efficient (share prices reflect all publicly available information, including past
information), or strong form. efficient (share prices reflect all information, whether publicly available or not). This research has
shown that well-developed capital markets are weak form. efficient, so that it is not possible to generate abnormal profits by
studying and analysing past information, such as historic share price movements. This research has also shown that
well-developed capital markets are semi-strong form. efficient, so that it is not possible to generate abnormal profits by studying
publicly available information such as company financial statements or press releases. Capital markets are not strong form
efficient, since it is possible to use insider information to buy and sell shares for profit.
If a stock market has been found to be semi-strong form. efficient, it means that research has shown that share prices on the
market respond quickly and accurately to new information as it arrives on the market. The share price of a company quickly
responds if new information relating to that company is released. The share prices quoted on a stock exchange are therefore
always fair prices, reflecting all information about a company that is relevant to buying and selling. The share price will factor
in past company performance, expected company performance, the quality of the management team, the way the company
might respond to changes in the economic environment such as a rise in interest rate, and so on.
There are a number of implications for a company of its stock market being semi-strong form. efficient. If it is thinking about
acquiring another company, the market value of the potential target company will be a fair one, since there are no bargains
to be found in an efficient market as a result of shares being undervalued. The managers of the company should focus on
making decisions that increase shareholder wealth, since the market will recognise the good decisions they are making and
the share price will increase accordingly. Manipulating accounting information, such as ‘window dressing’ annual financial
statements, will not be effective, as the share price will reflect the underlying ‘fundamentals’ of the company’s business
operations and will be unresponsive to cosmetic changes. It has also been argued that, if a stock market is efficient, the timing
of new issues of equity will be immaterial, as the price paid for the new equity will always be a fair one.


1 Geno Vesa Farm (GVF), a limited liability company, is a cheese manufacturer. Its principal activity is the production

of a traditional ‘Farmhouse’ cheese that is retailed around the world to exclusive shops, through mail order and web

sales. Other activities include the sale of locally produced foods through a farm shop and cheese-making

demonstrations and tours.

The farm’s herd of 700 goats is used primarily for the production of milk. Kids (i.e. goat offspring), which are a

secondary product, are selected for herd replacement or otherwise sold. Animals held for sale are not usually retained

beyond the time they reach optimal size or weight because their value usually does not increase thereafter.

There are two main variations of the traditional farmhouse cheese; ‘Rabida Red’ and ‘Bachas Blue’. The red cheese

is coloured using Innittu, which is extracted from berries found only in South American rain forests. The cost of Innittu

has risen sharply over the last year as the collection of berries by local village workers has come under the scrutiny

of an international action group. The group is lobbying the South American government to ban the export of Innittu,

claiming that the workers are being exploited and that sustaining the forest is seriously under threat.

Demand for Bachas Blue, which is made from unpasteurised milk, fell considerably in 2003 following the publication

of a research report that suggested a link between unpasteurised milk products and a skin disorder. The financial

statements for the year ended 30 September 2004 recognised a material impairment loss attributable to the

equipment used exclusively for the manufacture of Bachas Blue. However, as the adverse publicity is gradually being

forgotten, sales of Bachas Blue are now showing a steady increase and are currently expected to return to their former

level by the end of September 2005.

Cheese is matured to three strengths – mild, medium and strong – depending on the period of time it is left to ripen,

which is six, 12 and 18 months respectively. When produced, the cheese is sold to a financial institution, Abingdon

Bank, at cost. Under the terms of sale, GVF has the option to buy the cheese on its maturity at cost plus 7% for

every six months which has elapsed.

All cheese is stored to maturity on wooden boards in GVF’s cool and airy sheds. However, recently enacted health

and safety legislation requires that the wooden boards be replaced with stainless steel shelves with effect from 1 July

2005. The management of GVF has petitioned the government health department that to comply with the legislation

would interfere with the maturing process and the production of medium and strong cheeses would have to cease.

In 2003, GVF applied for and received a substantial regional development grant for the promotion of tourism in the

area. GVF’s management has deferred its plan to convert a disused barn into holiday accommodation from 2004

until at least 2006.

Required:

(a) Identify and explain the principal audit risks to be considered when planning the final audit of GVF for the

year ending 30 September 2005. (14 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Principal audit risks
Industry
‘Farming’ is an inherently risky business activity – being subject to conditions (e.g. disease, weather) outside management’s
control. In some jurisdictions, where the industry is highly regulated, compliance risk may be high.
The risks of mail order retailing ‘exclusive’ products are higher (than for ‘essential’ products, say) as demand fluctuations are
more dramatic (e.g. in times of recession). However, the Internet has provided GVF with a global customer base.
The planned audit approach should be risk-based combined with a systems approach to (say) controls in the revenue cycle.
Goat herd
The goat herd will consist of:
■ mature goats held for use in the production of milk and kids which are held for replacement purposes (i.e. of the nature
of non-current tangible assets); and
■ kids which are to be sold (i.e. of the nature of inventory).
Tutorial note: IAS 41 is not an examinable document at 2.5 and candidates are not expected to be familiar with its
requirements. However, those candidates showing an awareness that biological assets are excluded from the scope of
IAS 16 because they are covered by IAS 41 and answered accordingly were not penalised but awarded equivalent marks.
Therefore, the number of animals in each category must be accurately ascertained to determine:
■ the balance sheet carrying amounts analysed between current and non-current assets; and
■ the charge to the income statement (e.g. for depreciation (IAS 16) and fair value adjustments (IAS 41)).
There is a risk that the carrying amount of the production animals will be misstated if, for example:
■ useful lives/depreciation rates are unreasonable;
■ estimates of residual values are not kept under review;
■ they are impaired.
Tutorial note: Under IAS 41 animals raised during the year should be recognised initially and at each balance sheet date
at fair value less estimated point-of-sale costs. There is therefore a risk of misstatement if fair value cannot be measured
reliabiy (e.g. if market-determined prices are not available). However, this seems unlikely.
Kids will be understated in the balance sheet if they are not recorded on birth (i.e. their existence needs to be recorded in
order that a value be assigned to them).
The net realisable value of animals held for sale may fall below cost if they are not sold soon after reaching optimal size and
weight.
The cost of goats is likely to be subjective. For example, the cost of producing a mature goat from a kid might include direct
costs (e.g. vetinary bills and cost of feed) and attributable overheads (e.g. sheltering). Care must be taken not to carry the
goat herd at more than the higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell (IAS 36 Revised).
Unrecorded revenue
Raised (bred) animals are not purchased and, in the absence of documentation supporting their origination, could be sold for
cash (and the revenue unrecorded).
Although the controls over retailing around the world are likely to be strong, there are other sources of income – the shop and
other activities at the farm. Although revenue from these sundry sources may not be material, there is a risk that it could go
unrecorded due to lack of effective controls.
‘Rabida Red’
The cost of an ingredient which is essential to the manufacturing process has increased significantly. If the cost is passed on
to the customers, demand may fall (increasing going concern risk).
Supplies of the ingredient, Innittu, may be restricted – further increasing going concern risk.
Any disclosure of GVF’s socio-environmental policies (e.g. in other information presented with the audited financial
statements), if any, should be scrutinised to ensure that it does not mislead the reader and/or undermine the credibility of the
financial statements.
‘Bachas Blue’
If ‘Bachas Blue’ has been specifically cited as a cause of a skin disorder then GVF could face contingent liabilities for pending
litigation. However, it is more likely that the fall in demand has threatened GVF’s going concern. As the fall in demand has
not been permanent, this threat has been removed for the time being.
The impairment loss previously recognised in respect of the equipment used exclusively in the manufacture of Bachas Blue
should be reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine their recoverable amount (IAS 36
‘Impairment of Assets’).
The recoverable amount would have been based on value in use (since net selling price would not have been applicable).
GVF’s management will have to provide evidence to support their best estimates of future cash flows for the recalculation of
value in use at 30 September 2005.
Maturing cheese
The substance of the sale and repurchase of cheese is that of a loan secured on the inventory. Therefore revenue should not
be recognised on ‘sale’ to Abingdon Bank. The principal terms of the secured borrowings should be disclosed, including the
carrying amount of the inventory to which it applies.
Borrowing costs should all be recognised as an expense in the period unless it is GVF’s policy to capitalise them (the allowed
alternative treatment under IAS 23 ‘Borrowing Costs’). Since the cost of inventories should include all costs incurred in
bringing them to their present location and condition (of maturity), the cost of maturing cheese should include interest at 7%
per six months (as clearly the borrowings are specific). There is a risk that, if the age of maturing cheeses is not accurately
determined, the cost of cheese will be misstated.
Health and safety legislation
At 30 September 2005 the legislation will have been in effect for three months. If GVF’s management has not replaced the
shelves, a provision should be made for the penalties/fines accruing from non-compliance.
If the legislation is complied with:
■ plant and equipment may be overstated e.g:
– if the replaced shelves are not written off;
– if the value of equipment, etc is impaired because the maturing cheese business is to be downsized;
■ inventory may be overstated (e.g. if insufficient allowance is made for the deterioration in maturing cheese resulting from
handling it to replace the shelves);
■ GVF may no longer be a going concern if it does not have the produce to sell to its exclusive customers.
Grant
There is a risk that the grant received has become repayable. For example, if the terms of the grant specified a timeframe. for
the development which is now to be exceeded. In this case the grant should be presented as a payable in the balance sheet.
If the reason for deferring the implementation is related to cash flow problems, this could have implications for the going
concern of GVF.


(b) Paying a dividend of 10c per share (1 mark)

正确答案:
(b) Paying a dividend of 10c per share.
There are insufficient retained earnings to pay a dividend of more than 5c per share.


TQ Company, a listed company, recently went into administration (it had become insolvent and was being managed by a firm of insolvency practitioners). A group of shareholders expressed the belief that it was the chairman, Miss Heike Hoiku, who was primarily to blame. Although the company’s management had made a number of strategic errors that brought about the company failure, the shareholders blamed the chairman for failing to hold senior management to account. In particular, they were angry that Miss Hoiku had not challenged chief executive Rupert Smith who was regarded by some as arrogant and domineering. Some said that Miss Hoiku was scared of Mr Smith.

Some shareholders wrote a letter to Miss Hoiku last year demanding that she hold Mr Smith to account for a number of previous strategic errors. They also asked her to explain why she had not warned of the strategic problems in her chairman’s statement in the annual report earlier in the year. In particular, they asked if she could remove Mr Smith from office for incompetence. Miss Hoiku replied saying that whilst she understood their concerns, it was difficult to remove a serving chief executive from office.

Some of the shareholders believed that Mr Smith may have performed better in his role had his reward package been better designed in the first place. There was previously a remuneration committee at TQ but when two of its four non-executive members left the company, they were not replaced and so the committee effectively collapsed.

Mr Smith was then able to propose his own remuneration package and Miss Hoiku did not feel able to refuse him.

He massively increased the proportion of the package that was basic salary and also awarded himself a new and much more expensive company car. Some shareholders regarded the car as ‘excessively’ expensive. In addition, suspecting that the company’s performance might deteriorate this year, he exercised all of his share options last year and immediately sold all of his shares in TQ Company.

It was noted that Mr Smith spent long periods of time travelling away on company business whilst less experienced directors struggled with implementing strategy at the company headquarters. This meant that operational procedures were often uncoordinated and this was one of the causes of the eventual strategic failure.

(a) Miss Hoiku stated that it was difficult to remove a serving chief executive from office.

Required:

(i) Explain the ways in which a company director can leave the service of a board. (4 marks)

(ii) Discuss Miss Hoiku’s statement that it is difficult to remove a serving chief executive from a board.

(4 marks)

(b) Assess, in the context of the case, the importance of the chairman’s statement to shareholders in TQ

Company’s annual report. (5 marks)

(c) Criticise the structure of the reward package that Mr Smith awarded himself. (4 marks)

(d) Criticise Miss Hoiku’s performance as chairman of TQ Company. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(a) (i) Leaving the service of a board
Resignation with or without notice. Any director is free to withdraw his or her labour at any time but there is normally
a notice period required to facilitate an orderly transition from the outgoing chief executive to the incoming one.
Not offering himself/herself for re-election. Terms of office, which are typically three years, are renewable if the director
offers him or herself for re-election and the shareholders support the renewal. Retirement usually takes place at the end
of a three-year term when the director decides not to seek re-election.
Death in service when, obviously, the director is unable to either provide notice or seek retirement.
Failure of the company. When a company fails, all directors’ contracts are cancelled although this need not signal the
end of the directors’ involvement with company affairs as there may be ongoing legal issues to be resolved.
Being removed e.g. by being dismissed for disciplinary offences. It is relatively easy to ‘prove’ a disciplinary offence but
much more difficult to ‘prove’ incompetence. The nature of disciplinary offences are usually made clear in the terms and
conditions of employment and company policy.
Prolonged absence. Directors unable to perform. their duties owing to protracted absence, for any reason, may be
removed. The length of qualifying absence period varies by jurisdiction.
Being disqualified from being a company director by a court. Directors can be banned from holding directorships by a
court for a number of reasons including personal bankruptcy and other legal issues.
Failing to be re-elected if, having offered him or herself for re-election, shareholders elect not to re-appoint.
An ‘agreed departure’ such as by providing compensation to a director to leave.

(ii) Discuss Miss Hoiku’s statement
The way that directors’ contracts and company law are written (in most countries) makes it difficult to remove a director
such as Mr Smith from office during an elected term of office so in that respect, Miss Hoiku is correct. Unless his contract
has highly specific performance targets built in to it, it is difficult to remove Mr Smith for incompetence in the
short-term as it is sometimes difficult to assess the success of strategies until some time has passed. If the alleged
incompetence is within Mr Smith’s term of office (typically three years) then it will usually be necessary to wait until the
director offers himself for re-election. The shareholders can then simply not re-elect the incompetent director (in this
case, Mr Smith). The most likely way to achieve the departure of Mr Smith within his term of office will be to ‘encourage’
him to resign by other directors failing to support him or by shareholders issuing a vote of no confidence at an AGM or
EGM. This would probably involve offering him a suitable financial package to depart at a time chosen by the other
members of the board or company shareholders.
(b) Importance of the chairman’s statement
The chairman’s statement (or president’s letter in some countries) is an important and usually voluntary item, typically carried
at the very beginning of an annual report. In general terms, it is intended to convey important messages to shareholders in
general, strategic terms. As a separate section from other narrative reporting sections of an annual report, it offers the
chairman the opportunity to inform. shareholders about issues that he or she feels it would be beneficial for them to be aware
of. This independent communication is an important part of the separation of the roles of CEO and chairman.
In the case of TQ Company, the role of the chairman is of particular importance because of the dominance of Mr Smith.
Miss Hoiku had a particular responsibility to use her most recent statement to inform. shareholders about going concern issues
notwithstanding the difficulties that might cause in her relationship with Mr Smith. Miss Hoiku has an ethical as well as an
agency responsibility to express her independence in the chairman’s statement and convey issues relevant to company value
to the company’s shareholders. She can use her chairman’s statement for this purpose.

(c) Criticise the structure of the reward package that Mr Smith awarded himself
The balance between basic to performance related pay was very poor. Mr Smith, perhaps being aware that the prospect of
gaining much performance related income was low, took the opportunity to increase the fixed element of his income to
compensate. This was not only unprofessional and unethical on Mr Smith’s part, but it also represented very bad value for
shareholders. Having exercised his share options and sold the resulting shares, there was now no element of alignment of
his package with shareholder interests at all. His award to himself of an ‘excessively’ expensive company car was also not
in the shareholders’ interests. The fact that he exercised and sold all of his share options means that he will now have no
personal financial motivation to take strategic decisions intended to increase TQ Company’s share value. This represents a
poor degree of alignment between Mr Smith’s package and the interests of TQ’s shareholders.
(d) Criticise Miss Hoiku’s performance as chairman of TQ Company
The case describes a particularly poor performance by a company chairman. It is a key function of the chairman to represent
the shareholders’ interests in the company and Miss Hoiku has clearly failed in this duty.
A key reason for her poor performance was her reported inability or unwillingness to face up to Mr Smith who was clearly a
domineering personality. A key quality of a company chairman is his or her ability and willingness to personally challenge the
chief executive if necessary.
She failed to ensure that a committee structure was in place, allowing as she did, the remunerations committee to atrophy
when two members left the company.
Linked to this, it appears from the case that the two non-executive directors that left were not replaced and again, it is a part
of the chairman’s responsibility to ensure that an adequate number of non-executives are in place on the board.
She inexplicably allowed Mr Smith to design his own rewards package and presided over him reducing the performance
related element of his package which was clearly misaligned with the shareholders’ interests.
When Mr Smith failed to co-ordinate the other directors because of his unspecified business travel, she failed to hold him to
account thereby allowing the company’s strategy to fail.
There seems to have been some under-reporting of potential strategic problems in the most recent annual report. A ‘future
prospects’ or ‘continuing business’ statement is often a required disclosure in an annual report (in many countries) and there is evidence that this statement may have been missing or misleading in the most recent annual report.


(b) Advise Maureen on deregistration for the purposes of value added tax (VAT) and any possible alternative

strategy. (8 marks)

An additional mark will be awarded for the effectiveness with which the information is communicated.

(1 mark)

正确答案:
(b) Advice on Maureen’s VAT position
Deregistration
In order to voluntarily deregister for VAT you must satisfy HMRC that the value of your taxable supplies in the next twelve
months will not exceed £62,000. You will then be deregistered with effect from the date of your request or a later date as
agreed with HMRC.
On deregistering you are regarded as making a supply of all stocks and equipment in respect of which input tax has been
claimed. However, the VAT on this deemed supply need only be paid to HMRC if it exceeds £1,000.
Once you have deregistered, you must no longer charge VAT on your sales. You will also be unable to recover the input tax
on the costs incurred by your business. Instead, the VAT you pay on your costs will be allowable when computing your taxable
profits.
You should monitor your sales on a monthly basis; if your sales in a twelve-month period exceed £64,000 you must notify
HMRC within the 30 days following the end of the twelve-month period. You will be registered from the end of the month
following the end of the twelve-month period.
Flat rate scheme
Rather than deregistering you may wish to consider operating the flat rate scheme. This would reduce the amount of
administration as you would no longer need to record and claim input tax in respect of the costs incurred by your business.
Under the flat rate scheme you would continue to charge your customers VAT in the way that you do at the moment. You
would then pay HMRC a fixed percentage of your VAT inclusive turnover each quarter rather than calculating output tax less
input tax. This may be financially advantageous as compared with deregistering; I would be happy to prepare calculations for
you if you wish.


Ms Huang, a shareholder of the Daqing Limited Liability Company (Daqing), found that the general manager, Mr Ding, had accepted bribes from several suppliers, which materially caused losses to Daqing, and adversely affected the interests of all shareholders.

Further examination, through a Certified Public Accountant firm, disclosed that there were a lot of affiliated transactions between Daqing and Everbright Co, which was the majority shareholder of Daqing. Mr Ding was recommended by Everbright Co and appointed by Daqing’s board of directors, which was substantially influenced by Everbright Co. With a series of such transactions Daqing transferred huge profits to Everbright Co and adversely affected Daqing.

Required:

(a) State whether Ms Huang was entitled to take legal action against Mr Ding for his illegal behaviour of accepting bribes which adversely affected all the shareholders. (2 marks)

(b) State TWO different legal actions Ms Huang was entitled to take to protect the rights of Daqing and its shareholders due to the affiliated transactions with Everbright Co. (4 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Mr Ding’s act of accepting bribery violated the criminal law and the relevant rules of the Company Law as well. Besides the criminal charges, he should be liable for his fraudulent behaviour of damaging the interests of Daqing and its shareholders. Therefore, Ms Huang was entitled to bring a law suit against general manager Mr Ding on the ground that his acts caused her loss of interests.

(b) With respect to Daqing’s damage, Ms Huang should first request the board of directors or supervisory board to take legal action against Everbright Co. Where these two bodies refuse to take reasonable actions, Ms Huang might, in her own name but for the interests of the company, bring a shareholder representative litigation against Everbright Co. On the other hand, she might also bring a direct litigation against Everbright Co on the ground that the connected transactions caused indirect damage to the shareholder’s interests.


(c) Comment on four reasons why the Managing Director of Quicklink Ltd might consider the acquisition of the

Celer Transport business to be a ‘good strategic move’ insofar as may be determined from the information

provided. (5 marks)

正确答案:


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第6节


(b) (i) Advise Benny of the income tax implications of the grant and exercise of the share options in Summer

Glow plc on the assumption that the share price on 1 September 2007 and on the day he exercises the

options is £3·35 per share. Explain why the share option scheme is not free from risk by reference to

the rules of the scheme and the circumstances surrounding the company. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) The share options
There are no income tax implications on the grant of the share options.
In the tax year in which Benny exercises the options and acquires the shares, the excess of the market value of the
shares over the price paid, i.e. £11,500 ((£3·35 – £2·20) x 10,000) will be subject to income tax.
Benny’s financial exposure is caused by the rule within the share option scheme obliging him to hold the shares for a
year before he can sell them. If the company’s expansion into Eastern Europe fails, such that its share price
subsequently falls to less than £2·20 before Benny has the chance to sell the shares, Benny’s financial position may be
summarised as follows:
– Benny will have paid £22,000 (£2·20 x 10,000) for shares which are now worth less than that.
– He will also have paid income tax of £4,600 (£11,500 x 40%).


(c) Explain the benefits of performance-related pay in rewarding directors and critically evaluate the implications

of the package offered to Choo Wang. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Choo Wang’s remuneration package
Benefits of PRP
In general terms, performance-related pay serves to align directors’ and shareholders’ interests in that the performancerelated
element can be made to reflect those things held to be important to shareholders (such as financial targets). This, in
turn, serves to motivate directors, especially if they are directly responsible for a cost or revenue/profit budget or centre. The
possibility of additional income serves to motivate directors towards higher performance and this, in turn, can assist in
recruitment and retention. Finally, performance-related pay can increase the board’s control over strategic planning and
implementation by aligning rewards against strategic objectives.
Critical evaluation of Choo Wang’s package
Choo Wang’s package appears to have a number of advantages and shortcomings. It was strategically correct to include some
element of pay linked specifically to Southland success. This will increase Choo’s motivation to make it successful and indeed,
he has said as much – he appears to be highly motivated and aware that additional income rests upon its success. Against
these advantages, it appears that the performance-related component does not take account of, or discount in any way for,
the risk of the Southland investment. The bonus does not become payable on a sliding scale but only on a single payout basis
when the factory reaches an ‘ambitious’ level of output. Accordingly, Choo has more incentive to be accepting of risk with
decisions on the Southland investment than risk averse. This may be what was planned, but such a bias should be pointed
out. Clearly, the company should accept some risk but recklessness should be discouraged. In conclusion, Choo’s PRP
package could have been better designed, especially if the Southland investment is seen as strategically risky.


(b) (i) Explain the matters you should consider to determine whether capitalised development costs are

appropriately recognised; and (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Materiality
The net book value of capitalised development costs represent 7% of total assets in 2007 (2006 – 7·7%), and is
therefore material. The net book value has increased by 13%, a significant trend.
The costs capitalised during the year amount to $750,000. If it was found that the development cost had been
inappropriately capitalised, the cost should instead have been expensed. This would reduce profit before tax by
$750,000, representing 42% of the year’s profit. This is highly material. It is therefore essential to gather sufficient
evidence to support the assertion that development costs should be recognised as an asset.
In 2007, $750,000 capitalised development costs have been incurred, when added to $160,000 research costs
expensed, total research and development costs are $910,000 which represents 20·2% of total revenue, again
indicating a high level of materiality for this class of transaction.
Relevant accounting standard
Development costs should only be capitalised as an intangible asset if the recognition criteria of IAS 38 Intangible Assets
have been demonstrated in full:
– Intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it
– Technical feasibility and ability to use or sell
– Ability to generate future economic benefit
– Availability of technical, financial and other resources to complete
– Ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset.
Research costs must be expensed, as should development costs which do not comply with the above criteria. The
auditors must consider how Sci-Tech Co differentiates between research and development costs.
There is risk that not all of the criteria have been demonstrated, especially due to the subjective nature of the
development itself:
– Pharmaceutical development is highly regulated. If the government does not license the product then the product
cannot be sold, and economic benefits will therefore not be received.
– Market research should justify the commercial viability of the product. The launch of a rival product to Flortex
means that market share is likely to be much lower than anticipated, and the ability to sell Flortex is reduced. This
could mean that Flortex will not generate an overall economic benefit if future sales will not recover the research
and development costs already suffered, and yet to be suffered, prior to launch. The existence of the rival product
could indicate that Flortex is no longer commercially viable, in which case the capitalised development costs
relating to Flortex should be immediately expensed.
– The funding on which development is dependent may be withdrawn, indicating that there are not adequate
resources to complete the development of the products. Sci-Tech has failed to meet one of its required key
performance indicators (KPI) in the year ended 30 November 2007, as products valued at 0·8% revenue have
been donated to charity, whereas the required KPI is 1% revenue.
Given that there is currently a breach of the target KPIs, this is likely to result in funding equivalent to 25% of
research and development expenditure being withdrawn. If Sci-Tech Co is unable to source alternative means of
finance, then it would seem that adequate resources may not be available to complete the development of new
products.


4 Graham Smith is Operations Director of Catering Food Services (CFS) a £1·5 billion UK based distributor of foods to

professional catering organisations. It has 30 trading units spread across the country from which it can supply a

complete range of fresh, chilled and frozen food products. Its customers range from major fast food chains, catering

services for the armed forces down to individual restaurants and cafes. Wholesale food distribution is very much a

price driven service, in which it is very difficult to differentiate CFS’s service from its competitors.

Graham is very aware of the Government’s growing interest in promoting good corporate environmental practices and

encouraging companies to achieve the international quality standard for environmentally responsible operations. CFS

operates a fleet of 1,000 lorries and each lorry produces the equivalent of its own weight in pollutants over the course

of a year without the installation of expensive pollution control systems. Graham is also aware that his larger

customers are looking to their distributors to become more environmentally responsible and the ‘greening’ of their

supply chain is becoming a real issue. Unfortunately his concern with developing a company-wide environmental

management strategy is not shared by his fellow managers responsible for the key distribution functions including

purchasing, logistics, warehousing and transportation. They argued that time spent on corporate responsibility issues

was time wasted and simply added to costs.

Graham has decided to propose the appointment of a project manager to develop and implement a company

environmental strategy including the achievement of the international quality standard. The person appointed must

have the necessary project management skills to see the project through to successful conclusion.

You have been appointed project manager for CFS’s ‘environmentally aware’ project.

Required:

(a) What are the key project management skills that are necessary in achieving company-wide commitment in

CFS to achieve the desired environmental strategy? (15 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Simply defined, a project is ‘activity that has a start, a middle and an end and consumes resources’ – it is therefore a discrete
activity aimed at achieving a specific objective or range of objectives. Graham is intent on using the ‘environmentally aware’
project to achieve a specific objective – the attainment of the international environmental standard. He is, however, aware
that there are a number of internal stakeholders inside the company who question the significance of such a project.
Externally, he can point to significant stakeholders, including customers and government who are looking for CFS to become
more environmentally aware. The project is likely to have strategic and not simply operational or administrative significance
and the person appointed into the role of project manager, ideally, should have both the traditional skills associated with
project management plus those of strategic management. Grundy and Brown list the traditional project management
techniques as:

Clearly, the project manager must have the technical project management skills, being able to manage the project through its
life cycle, which involves defining the project in terms of project objectives and scope as defined by time, cost and quality.
Planning the project in terms of breaking the overall project down into separate activities, estimating the resources required
and linking activities to resources in terms of time and priorities. Implementing the plan, including reviewing the progress in
meeting time and cost objectives and taking corrective action where and when necessary. Finally, reviewing the outcomes of
the project in terms of what was delivered to the customer and the extent to which client expectations were met.
The strategic nature of the project means that the project manager must have significant leadership skills, not only of the
project team, who are likely to come from different functions and parts of the company, but also influential stakeholders inside
and outside the company. This implies they should have good ‘political’ and communication skills as the project is of strategic
significance to the company. The ability to show how this particular project fits with the overall strategy of the firm is
important. The project is an important part in the achievement of the company strategy and in CFS’s case may help it
differentiate itself from its competitors. However, the project manager must recognise that there will be resistance from existing
managers reluctant to see resources committed to projects outside of the traditional value chain of the company. Certainly,
the project manager for the ‘environmentally aware’ project will themselves need to be aware of the external environmental
pressures prompting the firm to set itself specific environmental objectives and be able to link into supportive networks and
alliances. Finally, Grundy and Brown argue that the project manager will be the key to reviewing and learning from the project,
assessing whether defined objectives were achieved, the effectiveness or otherwise of the implementation process and how
key stakeholders were managed. The danger is that projects are seen as ‘one-off’ rather than contributing to the knowledge
and learning of the organisation. There may be a significant ‘learning curve’ that the firm has to go down and look tocontinuously improve its project management process.


(ii) An evaluation of the environmental and sustainability implications of the Giant Dam Project; (8 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Environmental and sustainability implications of the Giant Dam Project
In our preparation for the bid to act as principal contractor for the Giant Dam Project, we established that there were
two prominent negative implications of the project but these are, in our view, more than offset by two major
environmental positives.
The environmental arguments against the Giant Dam Project both concern the flooding of the valley behind the dam.
Regrettably, it seems that there will be some loss of important habitats. This, in turn, may mean the removal of balanced
environmental conditions for certain animal and plant species. In addition, the flooding of the valley will result in the
loss of productive farmland. This will mean reduced capacity for the host country to grow food and thus support citizens
such as the members of First Nation. From our point of view, as the board of R&M, however, we would remind
shareholders and other observers that the decisions involving the size and positioning of the Giant Dam were taken by
the client, the government. It is R&M’s job, having won the contract as principal contractor, to now carry out the plans,
regardless of our own views.
Happily, however, there are two very powerful environmental arguments in favour of the Giant Dam Project. It will create
a large source of clean energy for economic development that will be sustainable, as it will create no carbon emissions
nor will it consume any non-renewable resources as it does so (compared to, for example, fossil fuels).
At a time when people are becoming very concerned about greenhouse gases produced from conventional power
generation, the Giant Dam Project will contribute to the East Asian country’s internationally agreed carbon reduction
targets. This, in turn, will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases in the environment.
It is clear that the construction of the Giant Dam Project is an environmental conundrum with strong arguments on both
sides. The deciding factor may be the opinion that we each have of the desirability of economic growth in the East Asian
country (which the energy from the dam is intended to support). It seems that Stop-the-dam values the preservation of
the original environment more than the economic growth that the energy from the dam would support. The client does
not agree with this assessment and we are happy to be involved with a project that will create such a useful source of
renewable and non-polluting energy.


(b) Using the information provided in the case scenario, strategically evaluate the performance of the company

up to 2004, indicating any areas of particular concern. (20 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Essentially, Universal is a one product or service company selling its services into two main customer segments in the housing
market. From the performance information provided in Table 1, the company has achieved impressive rates of growth over
the 2001–4 period and this growth has come almost exclusively from private house owners. Universal is in the replacement
market. Its customers are looking to replace existing roofing systems with low maintenance/high attractiveness Universal
systems. To date growth has been exclusively within one region and been achieved by growing the area served through
investment in showrooms and depots.
Universal has chosen to grow its business through a differentiation focus strategy. It has identified a niche not served by the
major PVC doors and windows installers and poorly served by small independent installers. The value chain analysis
discussed above has shown the ways in which Universal has successfully distinguished itself from its competitors. Growth
has been through increasing its market penetration of one particular region. Such is the size of the private house owner market
and the lack of effective competition that the company has achieved a significant share of the market in its particular region.
However, in national terms, with 1% of the available market, Universal is a small operator. What is clear from the sales figures
is that as the firm grows bigger the relative rate of growth inevitably slows down, so that by 2004 it has an annual growth of
27% – still impressive by most companies standards. The move into supplying the commercial housing market has been
successful, but the share of total sales seems to have stabilised at around 5%. Universal clearly is finding it difficult to commit
sufficient new resources to this sector while coping with the growth from the domestic housing sector. Direct labour and other
direct costs seem to be a reasonable proportion of sales and predictably grow with the number of installation teams. Overall,
the gross margin, which sustains sales, marketing and overhead expenses, is moving in the right direction with a gross margin
of 52·6% achieved in 2004.
Labour, not surprisingly in a service business, consumes a considerable amount of costs. If one combines the direct labour
with the commission costs of sales canvassers and representatives together with salaries to staff in head office, one is in a
business where well over 50% of costs are attributable to people. Equally important is the fact that over 80% of the staff
employed by Universal is paid by results. This has significant consequences for the structure of reward systems and the
training and development of staff looking to maximise their incomes through either their individual or team performance.
Clearly, Universal sees no incompatibility between a reward system dominated by payments by results and the delivery of a
quality service differentiating it from its competitors.
Marketing has grown considerably over the period and reflects the recruitment of Mick Hendry as Sales and Marketing Director
in 2002. The marketing and sales model is very much one influenced by the one used by large PVC installers of doors and
windows. Here there is a heavy emphasis on direct selling techniques supported by increasing levels of advertising. Universal
sells to its customers directly and therefore avoids the costs and channel complications of using third parties to provide its
services. In many ways the direct selling techniques used are a very well established way of reaching the customer. Elements
of the marketing mix may be influenced by changes in communication technology, but the nature of the service requires
effective face-to-face contact with the customer. Sales to private house owners using credit generates significant finance
commission and is an important source of extra margin to Universal. Often in businesses depending on significant amounts
of credit sales the sales representative receives significant reward for selling a finance arrangement to the customer.
In terms of net profit achieved, 2001 and 2002 represents a significant change and, as argued in the scenario, this reflects
the recruitment of the Sales and Marketing Director. The achievement of this ‘step change’ in sales required commensurate
increases in most costs, but it is the significant increase in sales costs that explains the losses experienced in 2002. Sales
costs as a proportion of total sales rose from 14% in 2001 to almost 34% in 2002.
Particularly significant is the increase in sales commissions paid. The detailed changes in the way commission is paid is not
given in the case scenario, but it seems likely to reflect the previous experience of the Sales and Marketing Director in a closely
related industry. Similar levels of sales costs are incurred in 2003 and 2004 but the increase in sales, improvement in gross
margin and slower rate of growth in commissions paid explain the improved return on sales from –6·7% in 2002 to 4·2%
in 2003 and 5·8% in 2004.
Equally significant is the growth in showrooms and depots to support the growth in sales. Each additional facility costs in the
order of £30K with significant additions to costs in terms of staff and stock. Overall the performance of Universal over the
2001–2004 period is of a company achieving high rates of growth, incurring significant costs in so doing and moving into
modest levels of profit over the period. Its cost structure reflects the service it provides and the staff and reward systemsenabling the service to be provided.


(c) the deferred tax implications (with suitable calculations) for the company which arise from the recognition

of a remuneration expense for the directors’ share options. (7 marks)

正确答案:


(c) Explanatory notes, together with relevant supporting calculations, in connection with the loan. (8 marks)

Additional marks will be awarded for the appropriateness of the format and presentation of the schedules, the

effectiveness with which the information is communicated and the extent to which the schedules are structured in

a logical manner. (3 marks)

Notes: – you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 and for the financial year

to 31 March 2007 apply throughout the question.

– you should ignore value added tax (VAT).

正确答案:
(c) Tax implications of there being a loan from Flores Ltd to Banda
Flores Ltd should have paid tax to HMRC equal to 25% of the loan, i.e. £5,250. The tax should have been paid on the
company’s normal due date for corporation tax in respect of the accounting period in which the loan was made, i.e. 1 April
following the end of the accounting period.
The tax is due because Flores Ltd is a close company that has made a loan to a participator and that loan is not in the ordinary
course of the company’s business.
HMRC will repay the tax when the loan is either repaid or written off.
Flores Ltd should have included the loan on Banda’s Form. P11D in order to report it to HMRC.
Banda should have paid income tax on an annual benefit equal to 5% of the amount of loan outstanding during each tax
year. Accordingly, for each full year for which the loan was outstanding, Banda should have paid income tax of £231
(£21,000 x 5% x 22%).
Interest and penalties may be charged in respect of the tax underpaid by both Flores Ltd and Banda and in respect of the
incorrect returns made to HMRC
Willingness to act for Banda
We would not wish to be associated with a client who has engaged in deliberate tax evasion as this poses a threat to the
fundamental principles of integrity and professional behaviour. Accordingly, we should refuse to act for Banda unless she is
willing to disclose the details regarding the loan to HMRC and pay the ensuing tax liabilities. Even if full disclosure is made,
we should consider whether the loan was deliberately hidden from HMRC or Banda’s previous tax adviser.
In addition, companies are prohibited from making loans to directors under the Companies Act. We should advise Banda to
seek legal advice on her own position and that of Flores Ltd.


(b) Ratio analysis in general can be useful in comparing the performance of two companies, but it has its limitations.

Required:

State and briefly explain three factors which can cause accounting ratios to be misleading when used for

such comparison. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) One company may have revalued its assets while the other has not.
(ii) Accounting policies and estimation techniques may differ. For example, one company may use higher depreciation rates
than the other.
(iii) The use of historical cost accounting may distort the capital and profit of the two companies in different ways.
Other answers considered on their merits.


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第7节


(c) On the assumption that the administrators of Noland’s estate will sell quoted shares in order to fund the

inheritance tax due as a result of his death, calculate the value of the quoted shares that will be available to

transfer to Avril. You should include brief notes of your treatment of the house and the shares in Kurb Ltd.

(9 marks)

Note: you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 apply throughout this

question.

正确答案:

(c) Value of quoted shares that can be transferred to Avril
The value of shares to be transferred to Avril will be equal to £370,000 less the inheritance tax due by the estate.
IHT is payable on transfers in the seven years prior to Noland’s death and on the death estate.
The only chargeable gift in the seven years prior to Noland’s death is the transfer to the discretionary trust. No tax is due in
respect of this gift as it is covered by the nil rate band.


3 Mary Hobbes joined the board of Rosh and Company, a large retailer, as finance director earlier this year. Whilst she

was glad to have finally been given the chance to become finance director after several years as a financial

accountant, she also quickly realised that the new appointment would offer her a lot of challenges. In the first board

meeting, she realised that not only was she the only woman but she was also the youngest by many years.

Rosh was established almost 100 years ago. Members of the Rosh family have occupied senior board positions since

the outset and even after the company’s flotation 20 years ago a member of the Rosh family has either been executive

chairman or chief executive. The current longstanding chairman, Timothy Rosh, has already prepared his slightly

younger brother, Geoffrey (also a longstanding member of the board) to succeed him in two years’ time when he plans

to retire. The Rosh family, who still own 40% of the shares, consider it their right to occupy the most senior positions

in the company so have never been very active in external recruitment. They only appointed Mary because they felt

they needed a qualified accountant on the board to deal with changes in international financial reporting standards.

Several former executive members have been recruited as non-executives immediately after they retired from full-time

service. A recent death, however, has reduced the number of non-executive directors to two. These sit alongside an

executive board of seven that, apart from Mary, have all been in post for over ten years.

Mary noted that board meetings very rarely contain any significant discussion of strategy and never involve any debate

or disagreement. When she asked why this was, she was told that the directors had all known each other for so long

that they knew how each other thought. All of the other directors came from similar backgrounds, she was told, and

had worked for the company for so long that they all knew what was ‘best’ for the company in any given situation.

Mary observed that notes on strategy were not presented at board meetings and she asked Timothy Rosh whether the

existing board was fully equipped to formulate strategy in the changing world of retailing. She did not receive a reply.

Required:

(a) Explain ‘agency’ in the context of corporate governance and criticise the governance arrangements of Rosh

and Company. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Defining and explaining agency
Agency is defined in relation to a principal. A principal appoints an agent to act on his or her behalf. In the case of corporate
governance, the principal is a shareholder in a joint stock company and the agents (that have an agency relationship with
principals) are the directors. The directors remain accountable to the principals for the stewardship of their investment in the
company. In the case of Rosh, 60% of the shares are owned by shareholders external to the Rosh family and the board has
agency responsibility to those shareholders.
Criticisms of Rosh’s CG arrangements
The corporate governance arrangements at Rosh and Company are far from ideal. Five points can be made based on the
evidence in the case.
There are several issues associated with the non-executive directors (NEDs) at Rosh. It is doubtful whether two NEDs are
enough to bring sufficient scrutiny to the executive board. Some corporate governance codes require half of the board of larger
companies to be non-executive and Rosh would clearly be in breach of such a requirement. Perhaps of equal concern, there
is significant doubt over the independence of the current NEDs as they were recruited from retired executive members of the
board and presumably have relationships with existing executives going back many years. Some corporate governance codes
(such as the UK Combined Code) specify that NEDs should not have worked for the company within the last five years. Again,
Rosh would be in breach of this provision.
Succession planning for senior positions in the company seems to be based on Rosh family membership rather than any
meritocratic approach to appointments (there doesn’t appear to be a nominations committee). Whilst this may have been
acceptable before the flotation when the Rosh family owned all of the shares, the flotation introduced an important need for
external scrutiny of this arrangement. The lack of NED independence makes this difficult.
There is a poor (very narrow) diversity of backgrounds among board members. Whilst diversity can bring increased conflict,
it is generally assumed that it can also stimulate discussion and debate that is often helpful.
There is a somewhat entrenched executive board and Mary is the first new appointment to the board in many years (and is
the first woman). Whilst experience is very important on a board, the appointment of new members, in addition to seeding
the board with talent for the future, can also bring fresh ideas and helpful scrutiny of existing policies.
There is no discussion of strategy and there is evidence of a lack of preparation of strategic notes to the board. The assumption
seems to be that the ‘best’ option is obvious and so there is no need for discussion and debate. Procedures for preparing
briefing notes on strategy for board meetings appear to be absent. Most corporate governance codes place the discussion and
setting of strategy as a high priority for boards and Rosh would be in breach of such a provision.
There is no evidence of training for Mary to facilitate her introduction into the organisation and its systems. Thorough training
of new members and ongoing professional development of existing members is an important component of good governance.


(c) Calculate the theoretical ex rights price per share and the net funds to be raised by the rights issue, and

determine and discuss the likely effect of the proposed expansion on:

(i) the current share price of Merton plc;

(ii) the gearing of the company.

Assume that the price–earnings ratio of Merton plc remains unchanged at 12 times. (11 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Rights issue price = 2·45 x 0·8 = £1·96
Theoretical ex rights price = ((2 x 2·45) + (1 x 1·96))/3 = 6·86/3 = £2·29
New shares issued = 20m x 1/2 = 10 million
Funds raised = 1·96 x 10m = £19·6 million
After issue costs of £300,000 funds raised will be £19·3 million
Annual after-tax return generated by these funds = 19·3 x 0·09 = £1,737,000
New earnings of Merton plc = 1,737,000 + 4,500,000 = £6,237,000
New number of shares = 20m + 10m = 30 million
New earnings per share = 100 x 6,237,000/30,000,000 = 20·79 pence
New share price = 20·79 x 12 = £2·49
The weaknesses in this estimate are that the predicted return on investment of 9% may or may not be achieved: the priceearnings
ratio depends on the post investment share price, rather than the post investment share price depending on the
price-earnings ratio; the current earnings seem to be declining and this share price estimate assumes they remain constant;
in fact current earnings are likely to decline because the overdraft and annual interest are increasing but operating profit is
falling.
Expected gearing = 38/(60 + 19·3) = 47·9% compared to current gearing of 63%.
Including the overdraft, expected gearing = 46/(60 + 19·3) = 58% compared to 77%.
The gearing is predictably lower, but if the overdraft is included in the calculation the gearing of the company is still higher
than the sector average. The positive effect on financial risk could have a positive effect on the company’s share price, but
this is by no means certain.


5 Astrodome Sports Ltd was formed in December 2000 by seven engineers who comprise the board of directors of the

company. The seven engineers previously worked together for ‘Telstar’, a satellite navigation company.

In conjunction with one of the three largest construction companies within their country they constructed the ‘365

Sports Complex’ which has a roof that opens and uses revolutionary satellite technology to maintain grass surfaces

within the complex. The complex facilities, which are available for use on each day of the year, include two tennis

courts, a cricket pitch, an equestrian centre and six bowling greens. The tennis courts and cricket pitch are suitable

for use as venues for national competitions. The equestrian centre offers horse-riding lessons to the general public and

is also a suitable venue for show-jumping competitions. The equestrian centre and bowling greens have increased in

popularity as a consequence of regular television coverage of equestrian and bowling events.

In spite of the high standard of the grass surfaces within the sports complex, the directors are concerned by reduced

profit levels as a consequence of both falling revenues and increasing costs. The area in which the ‘365 Sports

Complex’ is located has high unemployment but is served by all public transport services.

The directors of Astrodome Sports Ltd have different views about the course of action that should be taken to provide

a strategy for the future improvement in the performance of the complex. Each director’s view is based on his/her

individual perception as to the interpretation of the information contained in the performance measurement system of

the complex. These are as follows:

Director

(a) ‘There is no point whatsoever in encouraging staff to focus on interaction with customers in efforts to create a

‘user friendly’ environment. What we need is to maintain the quality of our grass surfaces at all costs since that

is the distinguishing feature of our business.’

(b) ‘Buy more equipment which can be hired out to users of our facilities. This will improve our utilisation ratios

which will lead to increased profits.’

(c) ‘We should focus our attention on maximising the opening hours of our facilities. Everything else will take care

of itself.’

(d) ‘Recent analysis of customer feedback forms indicates that most of our customers are satisfied with the facilities.

In fact, the only complaints are from three customers – the LCA University which uses the cricket pitch for

matches, the National Youth Training Academy which held training sessions on the tennis courts, and a local

bowling team.’

(e) ‘We should reduce the buildings maintenance budget by 25% and spend the money on increased advertising of

our facilities which will surely attract more customers.’

(f) ‘We should hold back on our efforts to overcome the shortage of bowling equipment for hire. Recent rumours are

that the National Bowling Association is likely to offer large financial grants next year to sports complexes who

can show they have a demand for the sport but have deficiencies in availability of equipment.’

(g) ‘Why change our performance management system? Our current areas of focus provide us with all the

information we need to ensure that we remain a profitable and effective business.’

As management accountant of Astrodome Sports Ltd you have recently read an article which discussed the following

performance measurement problems:

(i) Tunnel vision

(ii) Sub-optimisation

(iii) Misinterpretation

(iv) Myopia

(v) Measure fixation

(vi) Misrepresentation

(vii) Gaming

(viii) Ossification.

Required:

(a) Explain FOUR of the above-mentioned performance measurement problems (i-viii) and discuss which of the

views of the directors (a-g) illustrate its application in each case. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Candidates may choose FOUR problems with performance measures from those listed below:
Tunnel vision may be seen as undue focus on performance measures to the detriment of other areas. For example ‘There is
no point whatsoever in encouraging staff to focus on interaction with customers in efforts to create a ‘user friendly’
environment. What we need is to maintain the quality of our grass surfaces at all costs since that is the distinguishing feature
of our business.’
Sub-optimisation may occur where undue focus on some objectives will leave others not achieved. For example, ‘We should
focus our attention upon maximising the opening hours of our facilities. Everything else will take care of itself.’ This strategy
ignores the importance of a number of other issues, such as the possible need to increase the availability of horse-riding and
bowling equipment for hire.
Misinterpretation involves failure to recognise the complexity of the environment in which the organisation operates.
Management views have focused on a number of performance measures such as ‘spend the money on increased advertising
of our facilities which will surely attract more customers.’ This fails to recognise the more complex problems that exist. The
town is suffering from high unemployment which may cause population drift and economic decline. This will negate many
of the initiatives that are being suggested by management. This may to some extent be offset by the good transport links to
the ‘365 sports complex’.
Myopia refers to short-sightedness leading to the neglect of longer-term objectives. An example would be ‘We should reduce
the buildings maintenance budget by 25% and spend the money on increased advertising of our facilities which will surely
attract more customers.’
Measure fixation implies behaviour and activities in order to achieve specific performance indicators which may not be
effective. For example, ‘Buy more equipment which can be hired out to users of our facilities. This will improve our utilisation
ratios which will lead to increased profits.’ Problems of unemployment and lack of complaints from customers may mean that
more equipment will not improve profit levels.
Misrepresentation refers to the tendency to indulge in ‘creative’ reporting in order to suggest that a performance measure
result is acceptable. For example ‘Recent analysis of customer feedback forms indicate that most of our customers are satisfied
with the facilities. In fact, the only complaints are from three customers – the LCA University who use the cricket pitch for
matches, the National Youth Training Academy who hold training sessions on the tennis courts, and a local bowling team.’
This ignores the likely size of capacity share occupied by these three customers. In this regard it should be acknowledged
that complaints represent a significant threat to the business since ‘bad news often travels fast’ and other customers may then
‘vote with their feet’.
Gaming is where there is a deliberate distortion of the measure in order to secure some strategic advantage. This may involve
deliberately under performing in order to achieve some objective. For example, ‘We should hold back on our efforts to
overcome the shortage of bowling equipment for hire. Recent rumours are that the National Bowling Association are likely to
offer large financial grants next year to sports complexes who can show they have a demand for the sport but have deficiencies
in availability of equipment.’
Ossification which by definition means ‘a hardening’ refers to an unwillingness to change the performance measure scheme
once it has been set up. An example could be ‘Why change our performance management system? Our current areas of focus
provide us with all the information that we need to ensure that we remain a profitable and effective business.’ This ignores
issues/problems raised in the other comments provided in the question.


2 (a) Discuss the nature of the financial objectives that may be set in a not-for-profit organisation such as a charity

or a hospital. (8 marks)

正确答案:

2 (a) In the case of a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation, the limit on the services that can be provided is the amount of funds that
are available in a given period. A key financial objective for an NFP organisation such as a charity is therefore to raise as
much funds as possible. The fund-raising efforts of a charity may be directed towards the public or to grant-making bodies.
In addition, a charity may have income from investments made from surplus funds from previous periods. In any period,
however, a charity is likely to know from previous experience the amount and timing of the funds available for use. The same
is true for an NFP organisation funded by the government, such as a hospital, since such an organisation will operate under
budget constraints or cash limits. Whether funded by the government or not, NFP organisations will therefore have the
financial objective of keeping spending within budget, and budgets will play an important role in controlling spending and in
specifying the level of services or programmes it is planned to provide.
Since the amount of funding available is limited, NFP organisations will seek to generate the maximum benefit from available
funds. They will obtain resources for use by the organisation as economically as possible: they will employ these resources
efficiently, minimising waste and cutting back on any activities that do not assist in achieving the organisation’s non-financial
objectives; and they will ensure that their operations are directed as effectively as possible towards meeting their objectives.
The goals of economy, efficiency and effectiveness are collectively referred to as value for money (VFM). Economy is
concerned with minimising the input costs for a given level of output. Efficiency is concerned with maximising the outputs
obtained from a given level of input resources, i.e. with the process of transforming economic resources into desires services.
Effectiveness is concerned with the extent to which non-financial organisational goals are achieved.
Measuring the achievement of the financial objective of VFM is difficult because the non-financial goals of NFP organisations
are not quantifiable and so not directly measurable. However, current performance can be compared to historic performance
to ascertain the extent to which positive change has occurred. The availability of the healthcare provided by a hospital, for
example, can be measured by the time that patients have to wait for treatment or for an operation, and waiting times can be
compared year on year to determine the extent to which improvements have been achieved or publicised targets have been
met.

Lacking a profit motive, NFP organisations will have financial objectives that relate to the effective use of resources, such as
achieving a target return on capital employed. In an organisation funded by the government from finance raised through
taxation or public sector borrowing, this financial objective will be centrally imposed.


(b) You are an audit manager in a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants currently assigned to the audit of Cleeves

Co for the year ended 30 September 2006. During the year Cleeves acquired a 100% interest in Howard Co.

Howard is material to Cleeves and audited by another firm, Parr & Co. You have just received Parr’s draft

auditor’s report for the year ended 30 September 2006. The wording is that of an unmodified report except for

the opinion paragraph which is as follows:

Audit opinion

As more fully explained in notes 11 and 15 impairment losses on non-current assets have not been

recognised in profit or loss as the directors are unable to quantify the amounts.

In our opinion, provision should be made for these as required by International Accounting Standard 36

(Impairment). If the provision had been so recognised the effect would have been to increase the loss before

and after tax for the year and to reduce the value of tangible and intangible non-current assets. However,

as the directors are unable to quantify the amounts we are unable to indicate the financial effect of such

omissions.

In view of the failure to provide for the impairments referred to above, in our opinion the financial statements

do not present fairly in all material respects the financial position of Howard Co as of 30 September 2006

and of its loss and its cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with International Financial Reporting

Standards.

Your review of the prior year auditor’s report shows that the 2005 audit opinion was worded identically.

Required:

(i) Critically appraise the appropriateness of the audit opinion given by Parr & Co on the financial

statements of Howard Co, for the years ended 30 September 2006 and 2005. (7 marks)

正确答案:

(b) (i) Appropriateness of audit opinion given
Tutorial note: The answer points suggested by the marking scheme are listed in roughly the order in which they might
be extracted from the information presented in the question. The suggested answer groups together some of these
points under headings to give the analysis of the situation a possible structure.
Heading
■ The opinion paragraph is not properly headed. It does not state the form. of the opinion that has been given nor
the grounds for qualification.
■ The opinion ‘the financial statements do not give a true and fair view’ is an ‘adverse’ opinion.
■ That ‘provision should be made’, but has not, is a matter of disagreement that should be clearly stated as noncompliance
with IAS 36. The title of IAS 36 Impairment of Assets should be given in full.
■ The opinion should be headed ‘Disagreement on Accounting Policies – Inappropriate Accounting Method – Adverse
Opinion’.
1 ISA 250 does not specify with whom agreement should be reached but presumably with those charged with corporate governance (e.g audit committee or
2 other supervisory board).
20
6D–INTBA
Paper 3.1INT
Content
■ It is appropriate that the opinion paragraph should refer to the note(s) in the financial statements where the matter
giving rise to the modification is more fully explained. However, this is not an excuse for the audit opinion being
‘light’ on detail. For example, the reason for impairment could be summarised in the auditor’s report.
■ The effects have not been quantified, but they should be quantifiable. The maximum possible loss would be the
carrying amount of the non-current assets identified as impaired.
■ It is not clear why the directors have been ‘unable to quantify the amounts’. Since impairments should be
quantifiable any ‘inability’ suggest a limitation in scope of the audit, in which case the opinion should be disclaimed
(or ‘except for’) on grounds of lack of evidence rather than disagreement.
■ The wording is confusing. ‘Failure to provide’ suggests disagreement. However, there must be sufficient evidence
to support any disagreement. Although the directors cannot quantify the amounts it seems the auditors must have
been able to (estimate at least) in order to form. an opinion that the amounts involved are sufficiently material to
warrant a qualification.
■ The first paragraph refers to ‘non-current assets’. The second paragraph specifies ‘tangible and intangible assets’.
There is no explanation why or how both tangible and intangible assets are impaired.
■ The first paragraph refers to ‘profit or loss’ and the second and third paragraphs to ‘loss’. It may be clearer if the
first paragraph were to refer to recognition in the income statement.
■ It is not clear why the failure to recognise impairment warrants an adverse opinion rather than ‘except for’. The
effects of non-compliance with IAS 36 are to overstate the carrying amount(s) of non-current assets (that can be
specified) and to understate the loss. The matter does not appear to be pervasive and so an adverse opinion looks
unsuitable as the financial statements as a whole are not incomplete or misleading. A loss is already being reported
so it is not that a reported profit would be turned into a loss (which is sometimes judged to be ‘pervasive’).
Prior year
■ As the 2005 auditor’s report, as previously issued, included an adverse opinion and the matter that gave rise to
the modification:
– is unresolved; and
– results in a modification of the 2006 auditor’s report,
the 2006 auditor’s report should also be modified regarding the corresponding figures (ISA 710 Comparatives).
■ The 2006 auditor’s report does not refer to the prior period modification nor highlight that the matter resulting in
the current period modification is not new. For example, the report could say ‘As previously reported and as more
fully explained in notes ….’ and state ‘increase the loss by $x (2005 – $y)’.


(b) Donald actually decided to operate as a sole trader. The first year’s results of his business were not as he had

hoped, and he made a trading loss of £8,000 in the year to 31 March 2007. However, trading is now improving,

and Donald has sufficient orders to ensure that the business will make profits of at least £30,000 in the year to

31 March 2008.

In order to raise funds to support his business over the last 15 months, Donald has sold a painting which was

given to him on the death of his grandmother in January 1998. The probate value of the painting was £3,200,

and Donald sold it for £8,084 (after deduction of 6% commission costs) in November 2006.

He also sold other assets in the year of assessment 2006/07, realising further chargeable gains of £8,775 (after

indexation of £249 and taper relief of £975).

Required:

(i) Calculate the chargeable gain on the disposal of the painting in November 2006. (4 marks)

正确答案:

 


(ii) The answers to any questions that the potential investors may raise in connection with the maximum

possible investment, borrowing to finance the subscription and the implications of selling the shares.

(7 marks)

Note: you should assume that Vostok Ltd and its trade qualify for the purposes of the enterprise investment

scheme and you are not required to list the conditions that need to be satisfied by the company, its

shares or its business activities.

正确答案:
(ii) Answers to questions from potential investors
Maximum investment
– For the relief to be available, a shareholder (together with spouse and children) cannot own more than 30% of the
company. Accordingly, the maximum investment by a single subscriber will be £315,000 (15,000 x £21).
Borrowing to finance the purchase
– There would normally be tax relief for the interest paid on a loan taken out to acquire shares in a close company
such as Vostok Ltd. However, this relief is not available when the shares qualify for relief under the enterprise
investment scheme.
Implications of a subscriber selling the shares in Vostok Ltd
– The income tax relief will be withdrawn if the shares in Vostok Ltd are sold within three years of subscription.
– Any profit arising on the sale of the shares in Vostok Ltd on which income tax relief has been given will be exempt
from capital gains tax provided the shares have been held for three years.
– Any capital loss arising on the sale of the shares will be allowable regardless of how long the shares have been
held. However, the loss will be reduced by the amount of income tax relief obtained in respect of the investment.
The loss may be used to reduce the investor’s taxable income, and hence his income tax liability, for the tax year
of loss and/or the preceding tax year.
– Any gain deferred at the time of subscription will become chargeable in the year in which the shares in Vostok Ltd
are sold.


(b) Explain how Perfect Shopper might re-structure its upstream supply chain to address the problems identified

in the scenario. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Perfect Shopper currently has a relatively short upstream supply chain. They are bulk purchasers from established suppliers
of branded goods. Their main strength at the moment is to offer these branded goods at discounted prices to neighbourhood
shops that would normally have to pay premium prices for these goods.
In the upstream supply chain, the issue of branding is a significant one. At present, Perfect Shopper only provides branded
goods from established names to its customers. As far as the suppliers are concerned, Perfect Shopper is the customer and
the company’s regional warehouses are supplied as if they were the warehouses of conventional supermarkets. Perfect
Shopper might look at the following restructuring opportunities within this context:
– Examining the arrangements for the delivery of products from suppliers to the regional warehouses. At present this is in
the hands of the suppliers or contractors appointed by suppliers. It appears that when Perfect Shopper was established
it decided not to contract its own distribution. This must now be open to review. It is likely that competitors have
established contractual arrangements with logistics companies to collect products from suppliers. Perfect Shopper must
examine this, accompanied by an investigation into downstream distribution. A significant distribution contract would
probably include the branding of lorries and vans and this would provide an opportunity to increase brand visibility and
so tackle this issue at the same time.
– Contracting the supply and distribution of goods also offers other opportunities. Many integrated logistics contractors also
supply storage and warehousing solutions and it would be useful for Perfect Shopper to evaluate the costs of these.
Essentially, distribution, warehousing and packaging could be outsourced to an integrated logistics company and Perfect
Shopper could re-position itself as a primarily sales and marketing operation.
– Finally, Perfect Shopper must review how it communicates orders and ordering requirements with its suppliers. Their
reliance on supplier deliveries suggests that the relationship is a relatively straightforward one. There may be
opportunities for sharing information and allowing suppliers access to forecasted demand. There are many examples
where organisations have allowed suppliers access to their information to reduce costs and to improve the efficiency of
the supply chain as a whole.
The suggestions listed above assume that Perfect Shopper continues to only supply branded goods. Moving further upstream
in the supply chain potentially moves the company into the manufacture and supply of goods. This will raise a number of
significant issues about the franchise itself.
At present Perfect Shopper has, by necessity, concentrated on branded goods. It has not really had to understand how these
goods sell in specific locations because it has not been able to offer alternatives. The content of the standing order reflects
how the neighbourhood shop wishes to compete in its locality. However, if Perfect Shopper decides to commission its own
brand then the breadth of products is increased. Neighbourhood shops would be able to offer ‘own brand’ products to compete
with supermarkets who also focus on own brand products. It would also increase the visibility of the brand. However, Perfect
Shopper must be sure that this approach is appropriate as a whole. It could easily produce an own brand that reduces the
overall image of the company and hence devalues the franchise. Much more research is needed to assess the viability ofproducing ‘own brand’ goods.


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题题库8节 第8节


(d) Corporate annual reports contain both mandatory and voluntary disclosures.

Required:

(i) Distinguish, using examples, between mandatory and voluntary disclosures in the annual reports of

public listed companies. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(d) (i) Mandatory and voluntary disclosures
Mandatory disclosures
These are components of the annual report mandated by law, regulation or accounting standard.
Examples include (in most jurisdictions) statement of comprehensive income (income or profit and loss statement),
statement of financial position (balance sheet), cash flow statement, statement of changes in equity, operating segmental
information, auditors’ report, corporate governance disclosure such as remuneration report and some items in the
directors’ report (e.g. summary of operating position). In the UK, the business review is compulsory.
Voluntary disclosures
These are components of the annual report not mandated in law or regulation but disclosed nevertheless. They are
typically mainly narrative rather than numerical in nature.
Examples include (in most jurisdictions) risk information, operating review, social and environmental information, and
the chief executive’s review.


(c) During the year Albreda paid $0·1 million (2004 – $0·3 million) in fines and penalties relating to breaches of

health and safety regulations. These amounts have not been separately disclosed but included in cost of sales.

(5 marks)

Required:

For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Albreda Co for the year ended

30 September 2005.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

正确答案:
(c) Fines and penalties
(i) Matters
■ $0·1 million represents 5·6% of profit before tax and is therefore material. However, profit has fallen, and
compared with prior year profit it is less than 5%. So ‘borderline’ material in quantitative terms.
■ Prior year amount was three times as much and represented 13·6% of profit before tax.
■ Even though the payments may be regarded as material ‘by nature’ separate disclosure may not be necessary if,
for example, there are no external shareholders.
■ Treatment (inclusion in cost of sales) should be consistent with prior year (‘The Framework’/IAS 1 ‘Presentation of
Financial Statements’).
■ The reason for the fall in expense. For example, whether due to an improvement in meeting health and safety
regulations and/or incomplete recording of liabilities (understatement).
■ The reason(s) for the breaches. For example, Albreda may have had difficulty implementing new guidelines in
response to stricter regulations.
■ Whether expenditure has been adjusted for in the income tax computation (as disallowed for tax purposes).
■ Management’s attitude to health and safety issues (e.g. if it regards breaches as an acceptable operational practice
or cheaper than compliance).
■ Any references to health and safety issues in other information in documents containing audited financial
statements that might conflict with Albreda incurring these costs.
■ Any cost savings resulting from breaches of health and safety regulations would result in Albreda possessing
proceeds of its own crime which may be a money laundering offence.
(ii) Audit evidence
■ A schedule of amounts paid totalling $0·1 million with larger amounts being agreed to the cash book/bank
statements.
■ Review/comparison of current year schedule against prior year for any apparent omissions.
■ Review of after-date cash book payments and correspondence with relevant health and safety regulators (e.g. local
authorities) for liabilities incurred before 30 September 2005.
■ Notes in the prior year financial statements confirming consistency, or otherwise, of the lack of separate disclosure.
■ A ‘signed off’ review of ‘other information’ (i.e. directors’ report, chairman’s statement, etc).
■ Written management representation that there are no fines/penalties other than those which have been reflected in
the financial statements.


4 Hogg Products Company (HPC), based in a developing country, was recently wholly acquired by American Overseas

Investments (AOI), a North American holding company. The new owners took the opportunity to completely review

HPC’s management, culture and systems. One of the first things that AOI questioned was HPC’s longstanding

corporate code of ethics.

The board of AOI said that it had a general code of ethics that HPC, as an AOI subsidiary, should adopt. Simon Hogg,

the chief executive of HPC, disagreed however, and explained why HPC should retain its existing code. He said that

HPC had adopted its code of ethics in its home country which was often criticised for its unethical business behaviour.

Some other companies in the country were criticised for their ‘sweat shop’ conditions. HPC’s adoption of its code of

ethics, however, meant that it could always obtain orders from European customers on the guarantee that products

were made ethically and in compliance with its own highly regarded code of ethics. Mr Hogg explained that HPC had

an outstanding ethical reputation both locally and internationally and that reputation could be threatened if it was

forced to replace its existing code of ethics with AOI’s more general code.

When Ed Tanner, a senior director from AOI’s head office, visited Mr Hogg after the acquisition, he was shown HPC’s

operation in action. Mr Hogg pointed out that unlike some other employers in the industry, HPC didn’t employ child

labour. Mr Hogg explained that although it was allowed by law in the country, it was forbidden by HPC’s code of

ethics. Mr Hogg also explained that in his view, employing child labour was always ethically wrong. Mr Tanner asked

whether the money that children earned by working in the relatively safe conditions at HPC was an important source

of income for their families. Mr Hogg said that the money was important to them but even so, it was still wrong to

employ children, as it was exploitative and interfered with their education. He also said that it would alienate the

European customers who bought from HPC partly on the basis of the terms of its code of ethics.

Required:

(a) Describe the purposes and typical contents of a corporate code of ethics. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Purposes of codes of ethics
To convey the ethical values of the company to interested audiences including employees, customers, communities and
shareholders.
To control unethical practice within the organisation by placing limits on behaviour and prescribing behaviour in given
situations.
To be a stimulant to improved ethical behaviour in the organisation by insisting on full compliance with the code.
[Tutorial note: other purposes, if relevant, will be rewarded]
Contents of a corporate code of ethics
The typical contents of a corporate code of ethics are as follows:
Values of the company. This might include notes on the strategic purpose of the organisation and any underlying beliefs,
values, assumptions or principles. Values may be expressed in terms of social and environmental perspectives, and
expressions of intent regarding compliance with best practice, etc.
Shareholders and suppliers of finance. In particular, how the company views the importance of sources of finances, how it
intends to communicate with them and any indications of how they will be treated in terms of transparency, truthfulness and
honesty.
Employees. Policies towards employees, which might include equal opportunities policies, training and development,
recruitment, retention and removal of staff. In the case of HPC, the policy on child labour will be covered by this part of the
code of ethics.
Customers. How the company intends to treat its customers, typically in terms of policy of customer satisfaction, product mix,
product quality, product information and complaints procedure.
Supply chain/suppliers. This is becoming an increasingly important part of ethical behaviour as stakeholders scrutinise where
and how companies source their products (e.g. farming practice, GM foods, fair trade issues, etc). Ethical policy on supply
chain might include undertakings to buy from certain approved suppliers only, to buy only above a certain level of quality, to
engage constructively with suppliers (e.g. for product development purposes) or not to buy from suppliers who do not meet
with their own ethical standards.
Community and wider society. This section concerns the manner in which the company aims to relate to a range of
stakeholders with whom it does not have a direct economic relationship (e.g. neighbours, opinion formers, pressure groups,
etc). It might include undertakings on consultation, ‘listening’, seeking consent, partnership arrangements (e.g. in community
relationships with local schools) and similar.
[Tutorial note: up to six points to be identified and described but similar valid general contents are acceptable]


(b) Calculate the internal rate of return of the proposed investment and comment on your findings. (5 marks)

正确答案:


(ii) Division C is considering a decision to lower its selling price to customers external to the group to $95

per kilogram. If implemented, this decision is expected to increase sales to external customers to

70,000 kilograms.

Required:

For BOTH the current selling price of CC of $105 per kilogram and the proposed selling price of $95

per kilogram, prepare a detailed analysis of revenue, costs and net profits of BAG.

Note: in addition, comment on other considerations that should be taken into account before this selling

price change is implemented. (6 marks)

正确答案:

 


(c) Mr Cobar, the chief executive of SHC, has decided to draft two alternative statements to explain both possible

outcomes of the secrecy/licensing decision to shareholders. Once the board has decided which one to pursue,

the relevant draft will be included in a voluntary section of the next corporate annual report.

Required:

(i) Draft a statement in the event that the board chooses the secrecy option. It should make a convincing

business case and put forward ethical arguments for the secrecy option. The ethical arguments should

be made from the stockholder (or pristine capitalist) perspective. (8 marks)

(ii) Draft a statement in the event that the board chooses the licensing option. It should make a convincing

business case and put forward ethical arguments for the licensing option. The ethical arguments should

be made from the wider stakeholder perspective. (8 marks)

(iii) Professional marks for the persuasiveness and logical flow of arguments: two marks per statement.

(4 marks)

正确答案:

(c) (i) For the secrecy option
Important developments at SHC
This is an exciting time for the management and shareholders of Swan Hill Company. The research and development
staff at SHC have made a groundbreaking discovery (called the ‘sink method’) that will enable your company to produce
its major product at lower cost, in higher volumes and at a much higher quality than our competitors will be able to
using, as they do, the existing production technology. The sink process also produces at a lower rate of environmental
emissions which, as I’m sure shareholders will agree, is a very welcome development.
When considering the options following the discovery, your board decided that we should press ahead with the
investment needed to transform. the production facilities without offering the use of the technology to competitors under
a licensing arrangement. This means that once the new sink production comes on stream, SHC shareholders can, your
board believes, look forward to a significant strengthening of our competitive position.
The business case for this option is overwhelming. By pushing ahead with the investment needed to implement the sink
method, the possibility exists to gain a substantial competitive advantage over all of SHC’s competitors. It will place SHC
in a near monopolist position in the short term and in a dominant position long term. This will, in turn, give the company
pricing power in the industry and the likelihood of superior profits for many years to come. We would expect SHC to
experience substantial ‘overnight’ growth and the returns from this will reward shareholders’ loyalty and significantly
increase the value of the company. Existing shareholders can reasonably expect a significant increase in the value of
their holdings over the very short term and also over the longer term.
Ethical implications of the secrecy option
In addition to the overwhelming business case, however, there is a strong ethical case for the secrecy option. SHC
recognises that it is the moral purpose of SHC to make profits in order to reward those who have risked their own money
to support it over many years. Whilst some companies pursue costly programmes intended to serve multiple stakeholder
interests, SHC recognises that it is required to comply with the demands of its legal owners, its shareholders, and not
to dilute those demands with other concerns that will reduce shareholder returns. This is an important part of the agency
relationship: the SHC board will always serve the best economic interests of its shareholders: its legal owners. The SHC
board believes that any action taken that renders shareholder returns suboptimal is a threat to shareholder value and an
abuse of the agency position. Your board will always seek to maximise shareholder wealth; hence our decision to pursue
the secrecy option in this case. The secrecy option offers the possibility of optimal shareholder value and because
shareholders invest in SHC to maximise returns, that is the only ethical action for the board to pursue. Happily, this
option will also protect the employees’ welfare in SHC’s hometown of Swan Hill and demonstrate its commitment to the
locality. This, in turn, will help to manage two of the key value-adding resources in the company, its employees and its
reputation. This will help in local recruitment and staff retention in future years.
(ii) For the licensing option
Important developments at SHC
Your board was recently faced with a very difficult business and ethical decision. After the discovery by SHC scientists
of the groundbreaking sink production method, we had a choice of keeping the new production technology secret or
sharing the breakthrough under a licensing arrangement with our competitors. After a lengthy discussion, your board
decided that we should pursue the licensing option and I would like to explain our reasons for this on both business and
ethical grounds.
In terms of the business case for licensing, I would like shareholders to understand that although the secrecy option may
have offered SHC the possibility of an unassailable competitive advantage, in reality, it would have incurred a number
of risks. Because of the speed with which we would have needed to have acted, it would have necessitated a large
increase in our borrowing, bringing about a substantial change in our financial structure. This would, in turn, increase
liquidity pressures and make us more vulnerable to rising interest rates. A second risk with the secrecy option would
involve the security of the sink technology ‘secret’. If the sink process was leaked or discovered by competitors and
subsequently copied, our lack of a legally binding patent would mean we would have no legal way to stop them
proceeding with their own version of the sink process.
As well as avoiding the risks, however, the licensing option offers a number of specific business advantages. The royalties
from the licences granted to competitors are expected to be very large indeed. These will be used over the coming years
to extend our existing competitive advantage in the future. Finally, the ‘improvement sharing’ clause in the licensing
contract will ensure that the sink process will be improved and perfected with several manufacturers using the
technology at the same time. SHC’s sink production may, in consequence, improve at a faster rate than would have
been the case were we to have pursued the secrecy option.
Ethical implications of the licensing option
In addition to the business case, there is also a powerful ethical case for the decision we have taken. As a good,
responsible corporate citizen, Swan Hill Company acknowledges its many stakeholders and recognises the impacts that
a business decision has on others. Your board recognises that in addition to external stakeholders having influence over
our operations, our decisions can also affect others. In this case, we have carefully considered the likelihood that keeping
the new technology a secret from our competitors would radically reshape the industry. The superior environmental
performance of the sink process over existing methods will also mean that when fully adopted, the environmental
emissions of the entire industry will be reduced. SHC is very proud of this contribution to this reduction in overall
environmental impact.
There seems little doubt that the secrecy option would have had far-reaching and unfortunate effects upon our industry
and our competitors. The licensing option will allow competitors, and their employees and shareholders, to survive. It
is a compassionate act on our part and shows mercy to the other competitors in the industry. It recognises the number
of impacts that a business decision has and would be the fairest (and most just) option given the number of people
affected.


(ii) On 1 July 2006 Petrie introduced a 10-year warranty on all sales of its entire range of stainless steel

cookware. Sales of stainless steel cookware for the year ended 31 March 2007 totalled $18·2 million. The

notes to the financial statements disclose the following:

‘Since 1 July 2006, the company’s stainless steel cookware is guaranteed to be free from defects in

materials and workmanship under normal household use within a 10-year guarantee period. No provision

has been recognised as the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability.’

(4 marks)

Your auditor’s report on the financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2006 was unmodified.

Required:

Identify and comment on the implications of these two matters for your auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Petrie Co for the year ended 31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters above.

正确答案:
(ii) 10-year guarantee
$18·2 million stainless steel cookware sales amount to 43·1% of revenue and are therefore material. However, the
guarantee was only introduced three months into the year, say in respect of $13·6 million (3/4 × 18·2 million) i.e.
approximately 32% of revenue.
The draft note disclosure could indicate that Petrie’s management believes that Petrie has a legal obligation in respect
of the guarantee, that is not remote and likely to be material (otherwise no disclosure would have been required).
A best estimate of the obligation amounting to 5% profit before tax (or more) is likely to be considered material, i.e.
$90,000 (or more). Therefore, if it is probable that 0·66% of sales made under guarantee will be returned for refund,
this would require a warranty provision that would be material.
Tutorial note: The return of 2/3% of sales over a 10-year period may well be probable.
Clearly there is a present obligation as a result of a past obligating event for sales made during the nine months to
31 March 2007. Although the likelihood of outflow under the guarantee is likely to be insignificant (even remote) it is
probable that some outflow will be needed to settle the class of such obligations.
The note in the financial statements is disclosing this matter as a contingent liability. This term encompasses liabilities
that do not meet the recognition criteria (e.g. of reliable measurement in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent
Liabilities and Contingent Assets).
However, it is extremely rare that no reliable estimate can be made (IAS 37) – the use of estimates being essential to
the preparation of financial statements. Petrie’s management must make a best estimate of the cost of refunds/repairs
under guarantee taking into account, for example:
■ the proportion of sales during the nine months to 31 March 2007 that have been returned under guarantee at the
balance sheet date (and in the post balance sheet event period);
■ the average age of cookware showing a defect;
■ the expected cost of a replacement item (as a refund of replacement is more likely than a repair, say).
If management do not make a provision for the best estimate of the obligation the audit opinion should be qualified
‘except for’ non-compliance with IAS 37 (no provision made). The disclosure made in the note to the financial
statements, however detailed, is not a substitute for making the provision.
Tutorial note: No marks will be awarded for suggesting that an emphasis of matter of paragraph would be appropriate
(drawing attention to the matter more fully explained in the note).
Management’s claim that the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability does not give rise to a limitation
on scope on the audit. The auditor has sufficient evidence of the non-compliance with IAS 37 and disagrees with it.


14 Alpha buys goods from Beta. At 30 June 2005 Beta’s account in Alpha’s records showed $5,700 owing to Beta.

Beta submitted a statement to Alpha as at the same date showing a balance due of $5,200.

Which of the following could account fully for the difference?

A Alpha has sent a cheque to Beta for $500 which has not yet been received by Beta.

B The credit side of Beta’s account in Alpha’s records has been undercast by $500.

C An invoice for $250 from Beta has been treated in Alpha’s records as if it had been a credit note.

D Beta has issued a credit note for $500 to Alpha which Alpha has not yet received.

正确答案:D


(b) Discuss ways in which the traditional budgeting process may be seen as a barrier to the achievement of the

aims of EACH of the following models for the implementation of strategic change:

(i) benchmarking;

(ii) balanced scorecard; and

(iii) activity-based models. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Benchmarking
Benchmarks enable goals to be set that may be based on either external measures of ‘best practice’ organisations or internal
cross-functional comparisons which exhibit ‘best practice’. A primary aim of the traditional budgeting process is the setting of
realistic targets that can be achieved within the budget period. The setting of realistic targets means that the extent of
underperformance against ‘best practice’ standards loses visibility, and thus short-term financial targets remain the
predominant focus of the traditional budgeting process. It is arguable that because the budgetary reporting system purports
to give managers ‘control’, there is very little real incentive to seek out benchmarks which may be used to raise budgeted
performance targets. Much depends upon the prevailing organisational culture since benchmarking may be viewed as an
attempt by top management to impose impossible targets upon operational managers. The situation is further exacerbated
where organisations do not measure their success relative to their competition.
Balanced scorecard
The Balanced scorecard is often misunderstood as a consequence of the failure by top management to ensure that it is
implemented effectively within the organisation. Thus it may be viewed as the addition of a few non-financial measures to
the conventional budget. In an attempt to overcome this misperception many management teams now establish a
performance-rewards linkage based upon the achievement of Scorecard targets for the forthcoming budget period.
Unfortunately this can precipitate dysfunctional behaviour at every level within the organisation.
Even in situations where the Scorecard has been well-designed and well-implemented it is difficult for it to gain widespread
acceptance. This is because all too often there exists a culture which places a very high value upon the achievement of the
fixed annual targets in order to avoid the loss of status, recognition and rewards.
A well-constructed Scorecard contains a mix of long-term and short-term measures and therefore drives the company in the
direction of medium-term strategic goals which are supported by cross-functional initiatives. On the other hand, the budgeting
process focuses the organisation on the achievement of short-term financial goals supported by the initiatives of individual
departments. Budgets can also act as an impediment to the acceptance of responsibility by local managers for the
achievement of the Scorecard targets. This is often the case in situations where a continued emphasis exists on meeting shortterm
e.g. quarterly targets.
Activity-based models
Traditional budgets show the costs of functions and departments (e.g. staff costs and establishment costs) instead of the costs
of those activities that are performed by people (e.g. receipt of goods inwards, processing and dispatch of orders etc). Thus
managers have no visibility of the real ‘cost drivers’ of their business. In addition, it is probable that a traditional budget
contains a significant amount of non-value-added costs that are not visible to the managers. The annual budget also tends
to fix capacity for the forthcoming budget period thereby undermining the potential of Activity-based management (ABM)
analysis to determine required capacity from a customer demand perspective. Those experienced in the use of ABM
techniques are used to dealing with such problems, however their tasks would be much easier to perform. and their results
made more reliable if these problems were removed.